Table of Contents


1.  Air Brakes (Air friction)

2.  Air Pressure Rocket

3.  Air Pressure Activities

4.  Tablecloth Trick

5.  Action-Reaction Rocket (on a string)

6.  Egg-drop in bottle

7.  Different Sound Pitch in Soda Cans

8.  Liquid Rainbow in Straw

9.  Air Resistance with Parachutes

10.  Operation Lift-Off  Balloons traveling different distances

11.  Air Pressure Experiments with newspaper and straws

12.  Creative Weigh-in

13.  Chromatography with Markers and Filter Paper

14.  Candy buoyancy (sink or float)

15.   The magic boat

16.  Outrageous Ooze (Cornstarch)

17.  On the Rebound  (bouncing ball)

18.  Structure and function (Bio)

19.  Cooked vs. Raw Egg

20.  Refraction

21.  Two Forks (Center of Gravity)

22.  Gases and Gravity (baking soda and vinegar)

23.  Run-Away Pepper

24.  Geodesic Gumdrops

25.  Whirlpool in a Bottle

26.  Creating Big Bubbles

27.  Graphing Activity



1.        AIR BRAKES (Amanda Dunn)


What is Needed:

2 pieces of paper

3 balloons



1. Make an airplane with one piece of paper.


2. Hold the airplane piece of paper by the tail with its nose facing down as high as possible.  Next hold the other piece of paper level with the nose of the airplane.


3. Release the two papers.


What happens to the paper?  Which one touches the floor first?  You may want to run this two or three time to confirm that your results are correct.


4. Now pick up the balloons and put the paper away.  Blow one balloon completely up. Blow another balloon half the diameter of the first balloon. (Use the ruler to check this.)  Do not blow the third balloon up at all.


5.Predict which balloon will hit the ground first, second, and third of the three balloons. 


6. Hold the small balloon (Half size) and the inflated balloon.  Drop them and see what happens.  Repeat 2-3 times.


7. Repeat 6 using the large and small balloons.



                * Do your results make sense?

* Can you explain your results based on the friction between the balloons and the air? 


Air Friction:

Friction is defined as a resisting force by an object and air that causes one object to drop slower then another object. If an object is larger in size it has more air friction against it; therefore, will drop slower than a smaller object or an aerodynamic object. In the case of the paper, the piece of paper must displace a lot more air to fall to the ground while the airplane has less air to displace so it will reach the ground first.  The same is true for the balloons.





2.   Toying Around With Air Pressure and Aerodynamics Lesson Plan

                                          Amber Vasquez


Objective:  To introduce the students to a branch of physics with is aerodynamics and air pressure.


Materials: cotton swab, paper, blunt-end scissors, tape, straw, empty plastic soda bottle.


Instruction: The lesson that will be introduced to the students is a branch of physics called aerodynamics. Although the science experiment deals with the application of aerodynamics to airplanes or flying objects, aerodynamics actually relates to the effect that air has on any moving object including cars, boats, footballs, skiers, and skateboards. But included with the science activity I am going to incorporate the basic principles of air pressure. Here is some information you could use to explain air pressure:

          We live at the bottom of an ocean of air called the Earth’s atmosphere. Since gravity pulls down on the atmosphere, air near the Earth’s surface is “squashed” by the weight of all the air above it. This means that there are actually more molecules in the air at sea level than there are just one mile above sea level, and a lot more than there are at the top of a high mountain. At any point in a column of air, the motion of molecules at that point causes what we call air pressure. Since molecules move in all directions, the air pressure at any point is considered to be equal in all directions. Whenever there is a difference in air pressure between two places, the air will tend to move from a place of higher pressure to a place of lower pressure.

          Next, start explaining the science experiment you will do with your students. The experiment is called Toying Around With Air Pressure. In Toying Around With Air Pressure, students make an air pressure-powered rocket and try to find ways to make it go as far as possible. Students can try changing the size, shape of weight of the paper cone, the length or diameter of the straw, or the size or shape of the plastic soda bottle.


How to Do the Experiment:


1.    Cut a circle about 4 cm in diameter from your paper. Cut a slit to the center as shown then shape into a cone. Trim the point to make a small hole at the top.

2.    Pull off the cotton from one end of a cotton swab. Push the cotton on the other end of the swab up through the hole so that the cone stays on the swab snugly. This is your air pressure rocket.

3.    Place a straw into the empty bottle and hold it in place. Use the same hand to seal the opening of the bottle as much as possible. Place the rocket into the straw.

4.    Point your rocket away from your face and away from any one else. Give the bottle a hard squeeze. Your rocket should zoom.

Caution: Be sure to point the rocket away from yourself and anyone else.


Challenge: Try using a different bottle, straw set-up, or rocket design to create an air pressure rocket that goes the farthest!


Hint: Since you learned that air will always move from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure. Also air can be compressed, it has a higher and higher air pressure. With these two air pressure facts you can use them to make an air pressure rocket.


Conclusion: You can make physics fun by teaching about aerodynamics and air pressure then having the students make a fun toy incorporating the concepts of aerodynamics and air pressure.





Giselle de Guia



PURPOSE: To demonstrate the basic air pressure rules then have them try there own air pressure projects to demonstrate the rules they just learned.

SUPPLIES FOR DEMONSTRATION: Deep container (i.e. clear bucket), clear cups, paper towel, smooth piece of cardboard, and balloon.


4 Basic Air Pressure Rules


Rule # 1

Air takes up space.

Demonstration:  Place a wad of paper towel in the bottom of the clear cup.  Turn the cup upside down and push it straight down into the deep container of water.  The paper towel stays dry.  Water cannot fill the glass because it is already filled with air.  But if the cup is tilted, some air escapes and water can then enter. 


Rule # 2

Air pushes on things in all directions.

Demonstration:  Fill cup all the way to the rim with water.  Place a square piece of cardboard over the cup making sure there are no air bubbles trapped inside the.  Holding the cardboard in place, turn the cup upside down.  Take hand off cardboard.  The cardboard does not fall.  Air is pushing up keeps the card board and water in place.  Because air pushes in all directions the cup can even be turned sideways and the water won’t pour out. 


Rule # 3

When air is squashed or compressed its pressure increases.

Demonstration:  When air is pumped into a tire, or in this case a balloon, a lot of air is squashed into a small amount of space. Blow up balloon.  There is a lot of pressure inside.


Rule # 4

Air always tries to move from a place of higher pressure to a place of lower pressure.

Demonstration:  Blow up a balloon.  The air pressure is higher inside the balloon than outside of the balloon.  Let go of the balloon.  All the air comes out.  The air moved outside of the balloon where the pressure is lower. 

Now introduce the next two activities with a goal in finding which rule or rules apply to each activity.


Student activity # 1:  What's Going On Here?

Supplies for this project:  Water bottle and a small piece of paper napkin or tissue paper

Step 1:  Cut or tear the piece of tissue paper so that is slightly larger that the opening of the bottle.  Place the piece of paper on the opening.

Step 2:  Try to blow the paper into the bottle!  What happens? Why do you think its so difficult?

Step 3:  Give yourself a little head start by pushing the paper partially into the bottle as shown.

Try blowing it in again.

*Have each student try it.  Lab partners will share a bottle.

*Ask students: Which rule or rules does this project demonstrate? Discuss their answers.

The rule that applies is rule # 2.


Student activity # 2: Toying around with air pressure ( make an air pressure rocket)

Supplies for the Air Pressure Rocket: cotton swab, paper, blunt scissors, tape, straw, empty plastic water bottle.

Step 1:  Cut a circle about 4 cm in diameter from your paper.  Cut a slit to the center as own then shape into a cone.  Trim the point to make a small hole at the top.

Step 2:  Pull off the cotton from one end of a cotton swab.  Push the cotton on the other end of the swab up through the hole so that the cone stays on the swab snugly.  This is your air pressure rocket.

Step3:  Place a straw into the empty bottle and hold it in place.  Use the same hand to seal the opening of the bottle as much as possible.  Place the rocket into the straw.

Step 4:  Point your rocket away from your face and away from anyone else.  Give the bottle a hard squeeze.  Your rocket should Zoom!

*Students can split up the project between lab partners.  One student can make the rocket and one can make the launcher.

**During and after making the rocket have the students think of what rule or rules apply to the launching of the rocket.   Go over the answers with them.  Answer to activity problem: The two rules that apply are rules # 3 and # 4.



These Air pressure rules and student activities were taken from the book The Best of WonderScience, Elementary Science Activities : by American Chemical Society and American Institute of Physics.  Published by Delmar Publishers in 1997. Pages 412, 413, and 416. 

I put these three projects together and slightly changed them to make a Physics lesson.



4.  The Great Tablecloth Trick!

Meg Graber


This is a fun lesson for students from the second grade and up.  Most of the kids will probably have seen a magician pull a tablecloth out from under a set table.  Well now you can show them how! 


Students should understand the following

  1. Objects at rest tend to stay at rest
  2. Objects in motion tend to stay in motion
  3. Sudden changes of motion do not necessarily affect an object.


For this lesson you will need

·         Unbreakable plastic cups or bowls with smooth bottoms

·         Rice, washers, bolts, or other objects used as weights

·         Sheets of white paper (one per bowl or cup)

·         A table or counter top with a smooth surface


  1. Set up your piece of paper on the edge of the counter/table so that about 5cm.
  2. Fill your bowl about half way full with the washers/rice or other weights, and then place it in the center of the paper.
  3. Ask the students what they think will happen when you pull the sheet of paper out from under the dish.  You can tally their guesses on the board in order to keep track.
  4. Using both hands grab the sheet of paper where it hangs over the edge of the table.  Quickly jerk the paper downward and out from under the dish.
  5. Now empty the dish.  Again ask the class what they think will happen. 
  6. Repeat the trick.  Ask the class if it seemed to work as well as the first time?
  7. Now give each group of students their own supplies and let them perform the experiment themselves.
  8. Ask them if they found the experiment harder or easier with the weights in the dish. 
  9. In their science journals or on a piece of paper have them explain why they think there was a difference and why one worked better than the other.




5.  Student Report

Azra Mohammed




Activity # 1

Using Newton’s third law of motion: ‘Action Reaction.’

To make a straw rocket and use a balloon to facilitate the action reaction.  To test that the rocket will take off in the opposite direction when the air is let out of the balloon.


Activity # 2 

A cork is floating in a jar of water. Which way will the cork move with a quick, sharp shove?  What will be the first motion of the cork?  Will the cork move in the direction of the shove, backward or in a direction opposite to the shove?




Activity # 1:

  1. Tie a 40 ft. or 45 ft. string about 3 ft. high in a convenient place.
  2. Place a straw over the untied end.
  3. Blow up a balloon, twist the end and attach a paper clip so that the air cannot escape.
  4. Tape the full balloon to the straw.
  5. Hold the string tight.
  6. Release the paper clip and the rocket will go off.



Activity # 2:

  1. Tie the cork to the string at one end and tape the other end of the string to the lid of the jar.
  2. Fill the glass jar with water.
  3. The jar is placed upside down with the cork sitting upright attached by the string.
  4. Give a quick shove to the jar along the tabletop and record the observations.


Observation:  Activity # 1


The balloon rocket took off in the direction opposite to the air being released from the balloon when the paper clip was removed.  Initially the rocket had great speed and then slowed down before it stopped.


Activity # 2


The cork in the jar first moved forward when the bottle was shoved and then moved in the opposite direction.




The above activities prove Newton’s third law of motion that every action has an equal and opposite reaction.  The air released from the balloon makes the balloon rocket go forward.  The shove of the jar makes the cork inside it rebound.  The water in the jar helps to stabilize the reaction.  The cork does not move in a circular motion but just forward and then backward.




6.   Egg Drop

(Tammy Ritter)



To introduce students to air pressure and its affect on objects.





Follow up:



7.    Breanna Bly


               Purpose: To demonstrate how frequency affects the pitch of sound.


               Materials: Soda cans, pencils


               Procedure:  Ask each student to bring a can of soda or juice to school prior to demonstration.  Explain to the

         students that the pitch of a sound is determined by how rapidly an object vibrates.  Then, divide your students into

         small groups equipped with their canned beverages.  Have each member drink a different amount of liquid so that each

         person in the group will have a different level of beverage in their can.  Have each student tap the can with their pencil

         while the other group members listens to the sound it creates. After each student has tapped their can have them

         observe which cans have a higher pitch and which have a lower pitch. Next, have them arrange their cans in order from

         the lowest to highest pitch.


               Explanation: Explain to the students that sound is produced by the vibrating can, and the amount of liquid in

         each can affects the rate of vibration. The cans with more liquid vibrate slower, which produces low-pitched sounds

         and the cans with less liquid vibrate faster, which produces high-pitched sounds.




8.    Carmen Hall

Liquid Rainbow


  1. 5 pitchers, milk jugs, or other large containers
  2. Food coloring- 4 colors
  3. Transparent drinking straws
  4. Pickling or regular salt
  5. 6 containers for each student or group

The purpose of this experiment is to challenge students to layer five liquids of different density in a drinking straw.  They will learn how to observe and interpret data as well as learn the basic concept of density. 

Prepare five salt solutions, each with a different density. Use the following recipe:
Pitcher #1: 1 gallon water + 0 cups of salt + bottle of yellow coloring.
Pitcher #2: 1 gallon water + 1/2 cups of salt + bottle of green coloring.
Pitcher #3: 1 gallon water + 1 cups of salt + no coloring (clear).
Pitcher #4: 1 gallon water + 1 1/2 cups of salt + bottle of red food coloring.
Pitcher #5: 1 gallon water + 2 cups of salt + bottle of blue food coloring.

     Mix the solutions thoroughly, until all salt is dissolved.  Pickling salt is preferred for this activity because it does not have any additives and will not make cloudy solutions, but regular salt can be substituted.  Add the entire contents of one of the small bottles of food coloring, usually sold in sets of four at the grocery store.  Clear or translucent drinking straws must be used so that the colors of the different solutions can be observed when in the straw.  Each student or group of students will need six small containers; five to hold the solutions and one to be used as a waste container.

Do not allow students to see how much salt is in the solutions.  Place the five pitchers in a random order.  Distribute a sample of each of the five solutions to students. Allow them to practice placing a finger over the end of a straw and "picking up" a sample of a solution.

     Direct them to select two of the solutions at random. Draw a small portion of the first solution into the straw.  While holding the solution in the straw, lower the end of the straw into the second liquid.  Draw a sample of the second solution into the straw. If the first solution floats on the second, the first is less dense. If the first mixes or falls through the second; the first is more dense.

     By making comparisons of all five liquids and making record of each trial, student will establish an order of density for the five liquids. As an extension, challenge students to get all five solutions layered in the straw.

     Students will also develop their own technique for drawing a small sample of the solutions into the straw (holding their thumb over the end of the straw, using it as a air valve). They will be challenged to determine a technique to get all five solutions in the straw. They will learn to lower the straw progressively lower into each solution.



9.    Air Resistance

What Makes a Parachute Float Slowly Down?

James Perez



1. Student will understand that a parachute falls slowly because there is air pushing back on it.

2. Student will understand that any object that moves through the air is being slowed down by air      resistance.



  1. Predict how a parachute works using a sheet that includes a drawing or description.
  2. Provide a written example of applying air resistance to personal life.


Materials:  Per student

  1. 4 pieces of string 45cm long.
  2. 4 adhesive dots or tape      
  3. 2 jumbo paper clips
  4. 1 paper napkin



  1. Ask the students, what are different ways in which people fly?  Write down their responses on the board.
  2. Identify “parachutes” as one of the answers
  3. Ask the students how the parachute works
  4. Write the brainstorming ideas on the board
  5. Have the students draw a picture or write how they think a parachute works


Challenge Phase

  1. Demonstrate to students how to build a parachute. 
  2. Fasten the four pieces of string to the corners of the napkin using the adhesive dots. 
  3. Tie the four strings together.
  4. Attach a paper clip as a passenger.
  5. Show students one way of releasing the parachute.
  6. Experiment with different number of “passengers” and different ways of releasing the parachute.  Do these variables make any difference to the outcomes?



  1. Did the Parachutes work?
  2. What were some of the ways the students discovered how to launch the parachutes?
  3. Did adding more paper clips make a difference in how the parachute landed? 
  4. Reiterate to your students the idea of air resistance. 
  5. Have a group conversation with your class and discuss how everyone thinks a parachute works.  Guide them to the correct answers at the appropriate times.




10.    Operation “Lift Off”

Michele Pena


Subject:  Science & Math

Grade Level:  2nd

Strategy:  small groups

Time: 45 minutes


Objective:  To teach students about Isaac Newton’s Force and Motion theory, “For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.”  An object’s acceleration is proportionate to the amount of total force exerted on it.


Ask the students if they have ever seen the space shuttle launched into space.  This is made possible when tremendous steam (from the combination of hydrogen and oxygen) is pushed backward out of the shuttle and we see by Newton’s law that the steam pushes the shuttle forward, all the way into space!


Activity:  Construct balloon rockets to demonstrate the law of motion.  Show how different amounts of air cause different amounts of motion.



·         Balloons of varying sizes

·         Popsicle sticks

·         Drinking straws

·         Masking Tape

·         Lengths of string (at least 10 ft)

·         Rulers

·         Chalkboard



1.        Feed the string through the straw and tie Popsicle sticks for handles.

2.        Have two students hold the ends of the string (flight path) and put a 2 inch piece of masking tape on the straw. 

3.        Have another student blow up the balloon, not tying the end, attach the balloon to the taped straw.

4.        Have students release the balloons noting the distance traveled.

5.        Repeat the process using different sizes of balloons (amounts of air).


Conclusion and Modification:  Ask the students why different balloons traveled at different distances.  Students should be able to see that the different amounts of air in the balloons cause the different distances traveled.  For older students, you could have them measure the diameter of the balloon and the exact distance.  You could then have them plot this information on a graph further illustrating the relationship between force and acceleration.



Elaine Galvery


Grade Level:  3-5


Purpose:  To demonstrate the presence of air pressure in our daily lives.  Students will have hands-on experience for a better understanding of how air creates pressure and exhibits power in the simple things that we do.


Supplies:  yardstick, newspaper, cups, 2 straws per student, clay, and plastic drink bottles.



1.       To demonstrate that there is air pressure pushing on us from every

direction and that it is powerful, the teacher will place one sheet of newspaper, unfolded over a 1/8” thick yardstick on a flat surface.  Make sure the newspaper is flat on the surface, letting in as little air as possible.  The yardstick should extend past the surface (table) by no more than half its length.


Quickly strike the end of the yardstick that is hanging off the edge of

the table. Ask students what they think will happen:

        Will the newspaper go flying into the air?

        Will the newspaper tear?

        Will the stick break?


What happens and what did you learn?

The yardstick should break, demonstrating that at sea level, there is almost

15 pounds of air pressure per square inch and that means that a full sheet of newspaper, laid out flat, has nearly 9300 pounds of air on it.  The yardstick breaks because of the “heavy” air pushing down on the paper.  The table is also pushing back on the paper.  You are literally trying to lift 9300 pounds with the yardstick.  Because of the quick and sharp hit on the yardstick, the air cannot get under the paper fast enough to equalize the pressure, and the yardstick breaks.


2.        To show how nature tries to equalize air pressure, give each student two straws and a small cup of water, filled about halfway.  Have the students

put both straws in their mouths, but only one in the cup of water.  Now,

have then suck on both straws.


What happens and what did you learn?

When the students suck on both straws, no, to little, water should come

up the straw.  As nature tries to equalize the pressures, pushing air up through the free straw is much easier than pushing liquid, so only air flows into your mouth. 


A variation on this activity would be to put a small pinhole near the top of the straw and trying to suck liquid through that straw.  Nothing will happen.  Now have students put a finger over the hole.  The liquid should make it up the straw.


3.       Another variation on this principle of equalizing pressures so a liquid

will travel up a straw, supply students with a half filled plastic water

bottle.  Have them put a straw into the bottle with enough of the straw

sticking above the top of the bottle so they can suck on it.  Have

students seal the opening of the bottle with clay, so that no air can get

into the bottle.  Now have students try to use the straw to get a drink of water.


What happens and what did you learn?

When the air is sucked out of the straw, the straw collapses. In an open bottle, the air pressure outside the straw pushes down on the surface of the liquid enough to force the liquid into the empty straw.  In the closed bottle, there is not enough air to press the liquid down so it cannot push the liquid up the straw.  Air pressure is the result of gravity pulling the gas molecules in the air downwards.



                Using these easy experiments with air pressure, the student can see how important air and air pressure are in everyday activities, such as trying to drink a liquid through a straw.  This is something they can do at home with their families and friends.  It demonstrates the importance of air on our Earth.


Kassandra Pierce
12.     Creative Weigh-In


        Propose: to compare the weight of a paper creature with that of paper punches.


        ·Straight pin

        ·Small index card



        ·2 wooden blocks of equal height and not as wide as the length of the straw

        ·Paper hole puncher




        ·Use the ruler to find the center of the straw and mark the spot with the marking pen.

        ·Cut 1 in slits in each end of the straw. The slits should be in the same relative position on each end.

        ·Divide one index card in half by folding and cutting along the fold.

        ·Insert the paper pieces in the slits on each of the straw to form two flat surface that are parallel with each

        other. These papers will act as weighing pans.

        ·Punch the straight pin through the center of the straw, leaving an equal amount of the pin sticking out on

        each side of the straw.

        ·Position the two wooden blocks on a table and place the ends of the pin on the edges of the blocks.

        ·Draw your version of a space creature on half of the index card.

        ·Cut out the creature and place it on one of the balance’s paper weighing pans

        ·Cut paper punches from the remaining portion of the index card and continue to place them on the empty

        paper weighing until the saw is level with the table.


        Results: the end holding the paper creature falls down but starts to rise as paper punches

        are added to the opposite weighing pan. Too many punches lift the creature above the balancing point.


        Why: The downward pull that gravity has on an object is called its weight. Placing the

        paper creature on one side of the balance increases the weight on that side. Adding the paper punches on

        the opposite pan begins to balance the weight of the creature. When the total weight of the paper punches

        equals the weight of the paper creature, the balance will be level with the table. The level balance indicates

        that the pull of gravity is the same on both sides of the balance.


13.  Student Report: Chromatography

By: Carrie Visscher


Materials Needed:

2 black water-soluble markers of different brands

2 coffee filters

2 drinking glasses


Water in a jar


Step 1:

Make a small spot about ½ in. in diameter in the center of each coffee filter using one marker for each filter.  Place a filter on top of each glass.


Step 2: 

Use the eyedropper to drop water onto each ink spot.  Put the same number of drops on each one to make the test fair.


Step 3: 

Look closely to see what happens to the color spot from each pen as the ink dissolves in the water and spreads out.


Step 4:

Do both ink spots make the same pattern?  What colors make up the black color of each marker?



Chromatography is the separation of colors.  In this experiment we use chromatography to see what colors are in each ink marker.  The primary colors are red, blue, and yellow, so there should be a mixture of these colors.  For a variation you can try repeating this experiment using markers of different colors and find out what each one is made from.




14.  Will the Candy Float or sink?

Cari McClarty



SUBJECT:                    Physics and Mathematics


STRATEGY:                  as a class or in small groups

TIME:                           10 – 20 minutes



OBJECTIVE:  To teach students about buoyancy, density and displacement.  Students will be able to recognize properties that affect sinking and floating.  The discussion can also lead into learning about Archimedes Principle of the Bouyant Force.




ü       Snickers, Milky Way, 3 Musketeers, Skittles, Kit Kat, Butterfinger and                 Almond Joy fun-sized candy


ü       A bowl, or a 2-liter soda bottle cut in half



ü       Water




  1. First set up a table on the chalkboard that looks something like the following:



























      2.  Give each student or small group, one piece of each of the different types of candy.

  1. Ask the students to decide whether or not they think each of the candies above (Snickers, Milky Way, 3 Musketeers, Skittles, Butterfinger, Kit Kat & Almond Joy) will float or sink.  Tally their answers on the table (as shown above).
  2. Fill up the bowl or 2-liter soda bottle cut in half, with water.
  3. Unwrap each piece of candy.
  4. Test your predictions by placing each piece of candy in the water one at a time.
  5. Mark on the table whether the candy floated or sank.
  6. Allow the students to eat the candy!


* To make math as part of this lesson, ask the students to make a bar graph using the predictions from the table written up on the chalkboard.  Their bar graphs may look something like the following:



LESSON:  Three forces of nature work together to make an object float.  Bouyancy is the upward force that liquids exert against an object (Archimedes Principle).  Density is an object’s mass divided by its volume.  Displacement is the volume of water moved by a floating or sunken object.




  1. Use other common food items or small objects around the classroom.
  2. Have the students weigh the pieces of candy on a scale before they make their predictions.  Children often think that just because an object is light, it will float in water.





                Jojo Liu



Area of Science: Physics

Grade Level: K-3 (Ages 5-7)


Overview:  This activity allows the students to make a macroscopic object (foil boat) move across the water on its own due to the breaking of surface tension by the dishwashing solution.


Materials Needed: Piece of foil, large preferably flat pan filled with water and a few drops of dishwashing/laundry detergent or soap solution.


Directions:  Take the piece of aluminum paper and fold it into a boat (preferably into a power boat shape).  Fill the large flat pan with water and place the pointy side of the boat towards the water. Now drop a few drops of soap solution directly onto the water behind the aluminum boat and see the boat move across the water surface.

Note: The activity can only be performed once.  If you would like to repeat the activity, you must use a new pan of water.


Explanation of Activity:  As the soap molecules in the dishwashing liquid spreads it breaks the surface tension of the water allowing the aluminum boat to be pushed or moved. 


Website Found:



16.   Outrageous Ooze

Longina Burroughs



What do I need?

What do I do?

  1. Put newspaper down on your table.
  2. Put the cornstarch into the bowl. Add a drop or two of food

            coloring. (Use whatever colors you like.) Add water slowly, mixing

          the cornstarch and water with your fingers until all the powder is  


     3.  Keep adding water until the Ooze feels like a liquid when you're

            mixing it slowly. Then try tapping on the surface with your finger or

            a spoon. When Ooze is just right, it won't splash--it will feel solid.

            If you Ooze is too powdery, add a little more water. If it's too wet,

            add more cornstarch.

4.  Play around with your ooze!

·         Pick up a handful and squeeze it. Stop squeezing and it will drip through your fingers.

·         Rest your fingers on the surface of the Ooze. Let them sink down         to the bottom of the bowl. Then try to pull them out fast. What     happens?

·         Take a blob and roll it between your hands to make a ball. Then stop rolling. The Ooze will trickle away between your fingers.

·         Put a small plastic toy on the surface. Does it stay there or does it sink?

What's going on?

            Your Ooze is made up of tiny, solid particles of cornstarch suspended in water. Chemists call this type of mixture a colloid.  As you found out when you experimented with your Ooze, this colloid behaves strangely. When you bang on it with a spoon or quickly squeeze a handful of Ooze, it freezes in place, acting like a solid. The harder you push, the thicker the Ooze becomes. But when you open your hand and let your Ooze ooze, it drips like a liquid. Try to stir the Ooze quickly with a finger, and it will resist your movement. Stir it slowly, and it will flow around your finger easily.

          Back in the 1700s, Isaac Newton identified the properties of an ideal liquid. Water and other liquids that have the properties that Newton identifies are call Newtonian fluids. Your Ooze doesn't act like Newton's ideal fluid. It's a non-Newtonian fluid.

       There are many non-Newtonian fluids around. They don't all behave like your Ooze, but each one is weird in its own way. Ketchup, for example, is a non-Newtonian fluid. (The scientific term for this type of non-Newtonian fluid is thixotropic. That comes from the Greek words thixis, which means "the act of handling" and trope, meaning "change".)

Wow I didn't know that!

            Ketchup, like Ooze, is a non-Newtonian fluid. Physicists say that the best way to get ketchup to flow is to turn the bottle over and be patient. Smacking the bottom of the bottle actually slows the ketchup down!

            Quicksand is a non-Newtonian fluid that acts more like your Ooze--it gets more viscous when you apply a shearing force. If you ever find yourself sinking in a pool of quicksand (or a vat of cornstarch and water), try swimming toward the shore very slowly. The slower you move, the less the quicksand or cornstarch will resist your movement.




Julie Scates



        See Testing the Bounce before doing this activity.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns =

        "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />



        Patterns (height of drop/ball's bounce)


        Key Question

        How does the bail's bounce compare with the height of the drop?



        Students will discover a pattern relating the height from which a ball is dropped to the height of its bounce.


        Guiding Documents

        NCTM Standards

             Use patterns and relationships to analyze math­ematical situations

             Make and use measurements in problems and everyday situations


        Project 2061 Benchmarks

             Mathematics is the study ofmany kinds ofpatterns, including numbers and shapes and operations on them.

             Sometimes patterns are studied because they help to explain how the world works or how to solve practical

             problems, sometimes because they are interesting in themselves.

             · Measurements are always likely to give slightly different numbers, even if what is being measured stays the


             · Graphical display ofnumbers may make it possible to spot patterns that are not otherwise obvious. such as

             comparative size and trends.





        length Graphs

        bar and line Patterns


        Integrated Processes



          Collecting and recording data

          Comparing and contrasting



          Physical science force and motion


        For each group:

        golf ball

        meter stick

        small pieces of paper


        Background Information

        Students intuitively know that the ball will drop to the ground. The force of gravity is pulling the ball toward the Earth. Students also

        intuitively know that the higher the drop, the higher the bounce; the lower the drop, the lower the bounce. The attention here is on the

        pattern formed from the data.

        We want students to get excited about finding pat­terns. There is a relationship, a pattern between the height of the drop and the

        height of the bounce for a particular ball striking a particular surface. With the kind of data being gathered, a line graph is often used to

        show the results. However, a bar graph is more under­standable for younger students. If they compare the differences in bounce

        heights on a bar graph, students should find they form fairly consistent increments. They can then use this incremental distance to

        predict the bounce height for a drop from 120 centimeters.

        Measurement is never exact. A measurement can always be taken to another, more precise decimal place. Measuring a ball in motion is

        even more diffi­cult. Students should realize that their measurements are approximate.



          1.   Divide the class into groups of three.

          2.   To test the bounce, hold the meter stick vertically or tape it to a wall or pole. Hold the ball so its bottom is even with the

          designated height and let it drop; do not throw or push. By standardizing the way the ball is handled, a variable is being controlled.

          3.   To measure the bounce, find the distance from the surface to the bottom of the ball at the height of its bounce.

          4.   Use a concrete surface if possible.

          5.   Although the graph starts with zero and rises to 100, more accurate measurements are likely if students conduct the tests in

          reverse order, starting with the 100-centimeter drop.

          6.   Students should conduct several trials at each height because it requires practice to read a measurement when an object is in

          motion. When they are getting fairly consistent readings, they are ready to record the result. Students should read the

          measurement at eye level.

         7.   To measure the graph increments, use a small piece of paper to mark the difference in bounce height between 0 and the

        20-centimeter drop height (A). Then move the paper up to mark the difference in bounce height between the 20-centimeter and

        40-centimeter drop height (B). Continue until all incre­ments have been compared. The marks that were made should be fairly close

        together. Have stu­dents find the middle of the range of marks and mark that distance on the graph to predict the unknown bounce

        (C).<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />



                                    0                                           20                                         40

             B.    C.














                0    20 40 60



      (The following is offered for those students ready for more independent investigations.)


      Open-ended: Ask the Key Question and have groups devise their own plan for answering it. Students should recognize the variables to be

      controlled-type of ball, kind of surface, and how the ball is released. They also need to choose an appropriate graph for the data.



        1.   Give each group a golf ball and ask them to drop it (informally and with no measuring devices) different distances from the floor.

        Ask for their observations. "How do you think the height of the drop is related to the height of the bounce? Let's find out."

        2.   Distribute the activity page and instruct students to record the type of ball and type of surface (controlled variables).

        3.   Give each group a meter stick and have them go to the locations where they will be performing the investigation.



            4.  Direct students to record, in the first column, the drop heights indicated on the graph. Have them estimate, then test and

            measure the height of the bounce, continuing until they have completed the table.

            5.  Instruct students to make a bar graph from the data. Discuss their initial observations of the bar graph.

            6.  Ask, "Is there a pattern to how the graph is orga­nized?" [counting by 20's] "Then what would be the drop height for the

            dotted bar?" [120 centimeters~ Have students label the dotted bar.

            7.  Ask, "If the starting height is 120 centimeters, how can we predict the height of the bounce?" Give stu­dents time to think

            about this. Use one or more of their suggestions. Continue the discussion by ask­ing, "If the height-of-drop bars increase

            consistently, do the bounce heights also increase consistently?"

            8.  Show students how to mark the distance between bounce heights (see Alanagement 6) and find the middle of the range. Have

            them use their small paper to mark the predicted height of bounce for 120 centimeters. This is a prediction based on a pattern.

            They may want to fill in some of the cross bars at the top to help them determine the number of centimeters.

            9.  Instruct students to record data at the bottom of the activity sheet, then test and record the actual bounce. Hold a concluding




            1.  What did you observe when you first dropped the balls (before doing the investigation)? [They fall to the ground (gravity).

            They bounce back up, but not as high. The higher you start, the higher the bounce.~

            2.  What does the bar graph tell us?

            3.  How do your group's results compare with others? (Variations in the accuracy of measurements and how well variables are

            controlled can cause differences.)

            4.  How can we make a height-of-bounce prediction for a 120-centimeter drop height? (Have students look for patterns in the bar


            5.  1 wonder... [how the second bounce compares to the first bounce, if the second bounce also forms a pattern, if substituting

            another kind of ball will also make a pattern, how another type of surface might change the pattern, etc.] Design an investigation

            to find the answer to one of these wonderings.



          This activity is one in a series that tests the different variables affecting a ball's bounce. See also Have a Bail and From the Ground



         Teacher Resource

          Taylor, B.A.P., Poth, J.E., and Portman, D.J. Teach­ing Science With Toys: Physics Activities for Grades

             K-9.  Terrific Science Press. Miami University

          Middletown, Middletown, OH. 1994. (See "Bouncing

          Balls," pgs. 73-77.)

Casandra Campbell

SCI 210



18.  Structure and Function Come in Handy

(Modified Version)



The purpose of this activity is for children from 3rd to 12th grade to explore the functions of their hand, and what it would be like if the structure was changed.  This experiment will allow students to examine what specific structures in a hand are necessary to carry out daily activities.  They will see how hard it would be without these special structures like thumbs and pointer fingers.



Tape, cups, Popsicle sticks (or unsharpened pencils), rice, spaghetti, a deck of playing cards, and cereal (ex. Cheerios).  If there is a chalk or dry erase board at the front of the room it is preferable. 



  1. To start the activity, have all the students divided into groups of four and sit or stand around a table.
  2. Explain the four different ways in which each student will have one of their hands modified.  One person at each table will have pencils or Popsicle sticks taped to the backs of their fingers (including thumb) so their fingers can no longer bend.  A second person will have all of their fingers taped together, including their thumb so they only have a scoop-like function. A third student will have all of their fingers taped except their thumb. And the fourth student will have all of their fingers taped except their pinky finger.  
  3. After the students are ready for the activity, draw a graph on the board with the different hand structures on the vertical axis and the objects the students are going to pick up on the horizontal axis. 
  4. Have the students predict which hand will be able to pick up the most objects.
  5. Then explain that there will be four rounds of the experiment in which the four students at each table will race against each other to pick up the most objects in front of them and place them in their individual cup.  Each round will be timed at 20 seconds.
  6. For each race, place a pile of one of the four objects (rice, spaghetti, cards, or cereal) on the table, then let the race begin.  After each race, have the students count up the objects in their cup to find out which person picked up the most for their table.  The teacher will then record which hands won each round on the board.  This will be repeated four times so each object can be represented.
  7. After all the data has been recorded you can have the class discuss which modifications were more functional than others, and why they are better. Then discuss how the unmodified hand is the most functional structure of all and why.
  8. For the final bonus round have four volunteers come to the front of the room and each of them will use an unmodified hand to pick up all of four objects in 20 seconds. One student will stand in front of a pile of rice, another in front of spaghetti, another with cereal, and finally playing cards.  The entire class will be able to watch because the four students will all race at the same time.  The results will be announced, and the teacher will lead a discussion how an unmodified hand is better.  



* I found this experiment in the Wonder Science: Volume 2 book that I purchased for SCI 211 in spring quarter.  I used the basic idea of the experiment above called “Structure and Function Come in Handy” but I modified it to create my own experiment.

19.   Christine Monte

Raw or Cooked?

What You'll Need

One cooked egg
One raw egg


1. Spin each egg in turn on a plate. The egg that continues to spin for a longer time is the cooked one.

2. Now spin the eggs again, then quickly stop both of them. Then let go of both eggs. You will see that the cooked egg stays still but the raw one starts spinning again.

The contents of the egg have more inertia when they are raw, because they are in the form of a liquid. This inertia slows down the raw egg and that is why it stopped spinning before the cooked egg. In step 2, the liquid in the raw egg was still moving when you stopped both eggs, so that movement made the raw egg begin to spin again.


20.  Refraction (Grades 3 & 4)

Lucia Soltero




Plastic Cup





Refraction is the bending of light as it passes between materials of different density.




Experiment #1:




Experiment # 2:



Observe that the stick appears bent at the point in enters the water

Explanation: As light passes from one transparent medium to another it changes speeds and bends.


21.  Two Forks Experiment: Center of Gravity

Valery Walker

Material list:

One cork such as wine bottle cork

Two metal dinner forks, preferably identical.


One glass



To assemble takes some practice and lots of patience! It is a trial and error kind of experiment.

Poke the two forks symmetrically and firmly into the cork so that the handles of the forks form about a 90-degree angle.

Poke the tooth pick carefully into the cork; take care the toothpick does not break at the tip when you poke it into the cork.

Now put the toothpick on your finger, and try to balance the above assembly on your finger. If the angle of the forks is suitable, you should find a point on the toothpick that you can balance the forks. Mark this point.

Now try to balance the assembly on the rim of the glass. It should balance at about the marked point.

Light the toothpick at the uncorked end and watch the toothpick burn away.  The burning will stop once it hits the glass rim, but the fork assembly continues to be balanced at that point.


Physics explanations:

Center of Gravity of any object is the point about which you can balance the object as if all the masses were concentrated or gathered at this point. In other words, the net torque of all the masses of the object about this point is zero, regardless the shape of the object. In a uniform gravitational field, such as the classroom, the center of gravity and center of mass are located at the same point. The center of gravity does not have to be on the object, it can be in the open space. For instance, the center of gravity of this fork assembly is in between the forks in the empty space.

How do you make it stable? When you try to balance an object, if the point of support, the pivot point, is not at the center of gravity then the object will rotate either clockwise or anti-clockwise depending on which side has more torque. However, if the pivot point is on the same vertical line as the center of gravity, then the object, no matter what shape, is going to balance. It will be stable if the center of gravity lies below the pivot point. If the center of gravity is above the pivot point, even a slight disturbance will pull it off balance. You can imagine that this is like a simple pendulum where the center of mass (the ball at the end of the pendulum) swings below the pivot. If the pendulum's ball is pulled up a little, it will try to return to its most stable position with minimum potential energy. The pendulum will continue to oscillate about the pivot point until all its kinetic energy is lost to friction and it will settle down to the position with least potential energy. In our case if you want to have a stable situation, the center of gravity of this assembly has to be below the pivot point. The pivot point is where the toothpick rests on the rim of the glass. The actual center of gravity must lie in the empty space between the two forks and below the pivot point to achieve stability.


22.  Gases and Gravity

Randi Lee


Materials: A small bottle

                 Baking Soda






1)       Use the funnel to fill the balloon with 2 tablespoons of baking soda.  Then pour 2.75 cm of vinegar into the bottle.

2)   Slip the opening of the balloon over the mouth of the bottle. 

3)  When the balloon is securely attached to the bottle, hold the balloon upright so that the baking soda spills into the vinegar.


The mixture of baking soda and vinegar produces carbon dioxide. The gas puts pressure on the balloon and inflates it.  The gas takes up much more space than the solid and the liquid, so it inflates the balloon. A similar thing happens in a volcano.  When rock inside the earth melts, gases are produced.  Gases take up far more space then the solid or liquid ingredients that produced them. The gases are trapped underground until their pressure grows so great that they blow their way out of the ground.



-Take the inflated balloon out from the bottle and tie it up.  Get a second balloon and blow it up the same size as the first balloon.  Then get a third balloon and pump it up with an air-pump.

-Drop all three balloons at the same time and height, then watch which one will reaches the floor first.




23.  Frightened Run-Away Pepper

Kendra Smart




                This experiment helps explain the “sticky” force between two objects, known as cohesion.  Cohesion is the force that holds material together.  This attraction occurs between atoms and molecules. 

                We all know that glue and tape have the capability to stick two objects together.  These adhesives cause objects to cohere or adhere together.  Other examples are:  rain on a car windshield, dust to a ceiling fan, or gum to mom and dad’s carpet.  This experiment provides a K- 6th grader fun and a less sticky situation with mom and dad.




Supplies:  dish, pepper, dishwashing detergent


1.             Fill the dish with water (about 3/4ths full).

2.             Scatter pepper over the entire surface area of the water.

3.             Squeeze dishwashing detergent into the center of the water and pepper display.

4.             Watch what happens!!!




                The pepper stays scattered all about the water because the pepper is evenly pulled by the water from all directions.  When the detergent is placed in the water, it reduces the cohesiveness between the water and the pepper.  It reduces the pulling action on the pepper and it appears to run away.  The water around the edges (untouched by the detergent), still has its full pulling strength.  So this attraction of cohesion decreases as the distance between particles increases.



24.  Geodesic Gumdrops!

Presented by Janet Ahn

From Science Explorer
An Exploratorium-at-Home Book
By Pat Murphy, Ellen Klages, Linda Shore, and the Exploratorium


Grade Level:          3rd Grade and Up


Objective:              This experiment introduces students to some basic elements of physics, tension and compression using gumdrops and toothpicks.

You could use bits of rolled up clay or caramel, partially cooked beans, or any other material with the same consistency and shape and size.

The consistency of some of the gumdrops aren’t quite the same:  two different brands of gumdrops and one was on the stale side—this experiment might not work as well with materials that are too stiff.


Instructions:         Begin by reading the worksheet and building different shapes with the gumdrops and toothpicks.  After your students finish constructing their gumdrop structures, here is an example of the explanation of the lab (it can be simplified or more elaborate, depending on the grade level.  This is an example of an explanation for 3rd to 4th graders taken from the website with slight modifications):


                Ok so when you leave your gumdrop structures alone, they look like they are standing absolutely still. But their parts are always pulling and pushing on each other. Structures remain standing because some parts are being pulled or stretched and other parts are being pushed or squashed. The parts that are being pulled are in tension. The parts that are being squashed are in compression.


                Sometimes you can figure out whether something is in tension or compression by imagining yourself in that object's place. If you're a brick and someone piles more bricks on you, you'll feel squashed you’re in compression. If you're a long steel cable attached to a couple of towers and someone hangs a bridge from you, you'll feel stretched -- you're in tension.


                Some materials -- like bricks -- don't squash easily; they are strong in compression. Others -- like steel cables or rubber bands -- don't break when you stretch them; they are strong under tension. Still others -- like steel bars or wooden toothpicks -- are strong under both compression and tension.


                As you've probably already discovered, squares collapse easily under compression. Four toothpicks joined in a square tend to collapse by giving way at their joints, their weakest points. A square can fold into a diamond when you press in on one of its corners.


                Observe when you make a toothpick triangle, the situation changes. The only way to change the angles of the triangle is by shortening one of the sides.  A triangle with equal leg lengths will have equal angles for all its angles.  (Math:  Equilateral Triangle) So to make the triangle collapse you would have to push hard enough to break one of the toothpicks.


                If you want to, you can use your gumdrops and toothpicks to build some strong structures that are made by combining triangles and squares. The pattern on the left is one that's similar to some used in modern bridge design. You can make a very big structure out of squares and cubes, but it'll be wiggly and will probably fall down. If you try to make a structure out of only triangles and pyramids, it won't be wiggly, but you'll probably run out of gumdrops and toothpicks before it gets very big. A 4-sided pyramid has a square on the bottom and triangles on all 4 sides. When you make a structure that uses both triangles and squares, you can make big structures that are less wiggly.


                Build a square, and then poke a toothpick into the top of each corner.  Bend all 4 toothpicks into the center and connect them with one gumdrop, to make a 4-sided pyramid.


Extension:              With your students you can look for other triangles in structures around you may give you ideas for other designs you can build with gumdrops and toothpicks.





25.   Whirlpool in a Bottle

Tegan Murdock



To teach students about surface tension and some of the reasons why water can do some of the things it does.



Two 2 liter soda bottles for each group

Duck tape


Glitter (optional)

Food coloring (optional)



  1. Pass out two 2 liter soda bottles to each group. A good group size is usually between 2-4 students. Remove any caps that might still be on the bottles.
  2. Have the students fill one of the bottles ¾ of the way full. This is usually to about the top of the bottle label.
  3. Place the partially filled bottle on a flat surface. Take the second bottle and place it upside down on the first bottle so that the mouths (the openings) are together.
  4. Take a strip of duck tape about 6 in. long and tape the two mouths together. Press the tape down firmly and try to make a tight seal.
  5. Take the taped together bottles to an area that can get wet and turn them upside down.  (Warning: If you don’t have a tight seal between the two bottles, some water my leak out. You can add more tape to seal any leaks.) Give the water in the top bottle a swirl to start the water spinning.
  6. Observe what happens.



What should happen if the bottles were tapes together properly, and the water is given a good enough starting spin, is the water forms a whirlpool (vortex) inside the bottle. The reason for this is water’s high surface tension. Surface tension is the willingness of molecules of a substance to want to be together. The higher the surface tension, the more the molecules want to stick to each other. This stickiness is what causes water to form into drops, or spheres, rather than spreading out. When you start spinning the water in the bottles, you force the water to the inside edge of the bottle and because water wants to stick together, it stays on the inside edge, creating a hole for the air in the bottom bottle to escape to the top bottle.


Things to think about:

-If you don’t spin the water in the bottle, what happens? Why?

-Can you change the direction that the water spins in? Why or why not?

-If you were to change the shape of the opening between the two bottles (such as taping one

mouth closed and cutting a new opening) what would happen? Why?


*You can also see surface tension at work by placing water drops on a penny. How many drops can you place on a penny before the water spills off? Have the students guess before hand and see who got the closest.





                                                                26.  Creating Big Bubbles


                                           Sarah Rosario


                Bubble mix

                Assortment of plastic lids of different sizes




Preparation of Bubble Mix

                6 cups water (Distilled is best)

                ¾ cup corn syrup ( Karo Light)

                2 cups Dawn (or Joy) dish washing liquid.


                Mix together. Let set 4 hours




Step 1


Put bubble mix into the lid until the mix comes just up to the edge.


Step 2


Dip the straw in the cup of the bubble mix to get the end of the straw wet.  Next place one end of the straw into the bubble mix in the lid.  Keeping the straw in the mixture, slowly blow into the straw.


Step 3


Once a bubble starts to form, you have to position the end of the straw so that you can keep blowing air into the bubble.  Keep the wet part of the straw in contact with the surface of the bubble.




Water bubbles do not last very long because the forces between water molecules tears these bubbles apart. Using liquid soap reduces these forces and form bubbles.


Liquid detergents are good at reducing the forces between water molecules and letting bubbles form.  Detergent molecules will cover the surface of a bubble and let it expand a great deal without breaking. 



Nancy Keller

27.      Lab Activity

Grade Level: Fourth Grade and Above


Purpose: This is a graphing activity that should be done in preparation for physics activities that involve graphing data.  This activity can also be used for math and art.  This activity will turn your students into “point-plotting-pros.”



How to poke out the holes:

Do not poke out all of the holes; poke out only the holes indicated on your design directions.  Place your card on a piece of porous material and pole out the proper holes with a sharp, metal point.


How to thread your needle:

Cut off 3-4 feet of thread and thread your needle.  Do not tie a knot.  Arrange the thread on the needle so that the first two-thirds is double and the last one-third is single.  Only single thread may appear on the front side of the card; when you run out of single thread, pull your needle away from the card to produce more single thread.


How to start your design:

Start your design by pushing the threaded needle through the hole next to the first number on the design directions FROM THE NUMBERED SIDE TO THE BLANK SIDE.  Pull the thread through the hole until an inch remains and tape in down on the numbered side.  Be careful not to tape over any of the nearby holes or numbers that you will be using.


How to complete your design:

Continue to follow the numbers in the same order as they are arranged in each column of the design directions.  Each pair of numbers in a column will produce one segment of the design on the front of the card.  When you reach the bottom of one column, go to the top of the next column on the right.  If all the directions for a design are not contained on a single page, complete a;; the columns of numbers on one page before sewing any numbers on the following page.  Continue in this manner until you reach the last number.


What to do when you run out of thread:

When you run out of thread, or need to change the color of the thread, tape the end of the thread down on the numbered side, rethread your needle, and start again at the next hole indicated on the design directions.


When to change the color of your thread:

Use the same color of thread throughout the entire design or change the color beginning with the number preceded by an asterisk (*) on the design directions.



Avoid these common mistakes:

1.      Sewing around the edge of the card.

2.      Poking out holes that tare not used.  A different set of holes is used for each design.

3.      Skipping a number.  If you skip a number, the design will begin to appear on the numbered side of the card.

4.      Starting the design on the wrong side of the card.


Card to be used for these designs.




























































































































































































































































































































































































































































Design 1


(1,6)                 (6,11)               (9,14)               (13,12)             (10,15)             (7,8)

(6,9)                 (9,6)                 (14,11)             (18,13)             (15,10)             (12,7)

(7,8)                 (10,5)               (13,12)             (17,12)             (20,15)             (13,8)

(2,7)                 (5,10)               (8,13)               (12,13)             (15,10)             (8,7)


(3,8)                 (0,5)                 (7,12)               (11,14)             *(14,1)             (9,6)

(8,7)                 (5,10)               (12,13)             (16,11)             (11,6)               (14,9)

(9,6)                 *(6,19)             (11,14)             (14,11)             (12,7)               (15,10)

(4,9)                 (9,14)               (6,11)               (11,6)               (13,2)               (10,5)


(6,9)                 (8,13)               (5,10)               (12,7)               (12,3)               (15,0)

(9,14)               (7,18)               (10,15)             (13,12)             (13,8)               (10,5)

(8,13)               (8,17)               (5,20)               (12,13)             (14,9)               END

(7,8)                 (7,12)               (10,15)             (13,8)               (11,4)


(8,7)                 (6,11)               *(19,14)           (14,9)               (11,6)

(7,12)               (9,16)               (14,11)             (11,14)             (6,9)