Science Activities I
SCI210 Spring 2004
Marbles and Momentum
April 20, 2004
Grade Level: Third to Fourth
Time; About twenty to thirty minutes
Objective: To help students understand the concepts of momentum and inertia by doing a hands-on experiment that gives them a visual way to understand the concepts.
- Yardsticks or meter sticks
- Marbles or some other type of small balls that roll easily
- A flat surface
1. Tape two meter sticks to the flat surface leaving about a half of an inch between them.
2. Place two balls in between the sticks several inches apart
3. Roll one ball towards the other and record the results
4. Try different experiments rolling different number of balls towards another group of balls.
5. Record all your observations and see what conclusions can be made.
- From your observations what do you know about inertia?
Would the results be different if the experiment was conducted in a vacuum?
Marbles and Momentum
What is the effect this time?
By Ryan Apolinario
This activity can be done using a variety of things. A jump rope may be ideal, but using something like a telephone cord will make it easier to create the waves, making it easier to visualize the effect.
Children can work in pairs of two. One child will hold the cord still, while the other child
Will be attempting to create the waves. Depending on how in depth and detailed you are trying to be, you can make numerous activities with the waves. The following exercise is recommended as a simple activity.
First, let’s try to recreate a wave with just half a wavelength. Were you able to do it?
Now let’s try to make a wave with one wavelength. Make sure you can see and distinguish that you made one wavelength. It’s different to see the wave on paper than in real life. How much more effort did you need to need to put into making this wave in comparison to the first? (Answer: It takes twice the effort)
Now let’s create a wave with one and a half wavelengths.
Finally, try to create as many wavelengths that you possibly can. How many wavelengths was your group able to make? What are some observations you were able to make during this activity?
What Are Physical Properties of
Grade Level: Third
Time: 20-30 min
Process Skill Tip: observe, record
Observe physical properties of matter.
Identify matter as a solid, liquid, or gas.
¨Penny ¨index card
¨Marble ¨uncooked macaroni
¨Key ¨twist tie
¨Cotton balls ¨twist tie
¨Piece of peppermint ¨peppercorns
1. Pass out the activity handouts.
2. Give each pair of students a bag with materials.
3. Let the kids know to look at the objects you have given them. Tell them to notice if the objects look shiny or dull. Tell them to notice how many colors each one has. Then Record observations.
4. Let the children know to touch the objects. To feel whether the objects are hard or soft. Feel whether they are rough or smooth. Record observations.
5. Next, tell children to tap each object lightly with their fingernail. What kind of sound does it make? Record observations.
6. Finally, Smell each object. Record observations.
7. Draw conclusions(questions for children)
1) Which objects are hard and rough?
2) Which objects are hard and smooth?
3) Which objects are soft and rough?
4) Which objects are soft and smooth?
5) Compare your chart with the chart of another group. Are any objects in different columns? Why?
6) Scientist learn about the world by observing with their five senses. Which of the five senses did you not use in the investigation?
After collecting and analyzing data, students should conclude that objects can be classified according to common physical properties.
What Makes a Parachute Float Slowly Down?
Name: Dany Boroudian
This lab is intended to teach students about air resistance. It will also allow them to identify how a parachute works as it falls through the sky.
· 4 pieces of string 45cm (18”)
· 4 pieces of tape
· 4 jumbo paper clips
· 1 paper napkin
1. Place materials on table.
2. Allow a member or two from each table to come up and collect the supplies.
3. Demonstrate to students how they will be making a parachute with the supplied materials.
4. (Making the parachute) use the tape to attach the string to the corners of the napkin.
5. Then tie the four pieces of string together.
6. Attach one paper clip as the “passenger.”
7. Now ask the students to build theirs
8. Practice releasing parachute.
9. Add a second, third, and fourth “passenger” and see how your results change. (Does the parachute fall faster?)
A parachute slows down when it falls because of air resistance acting on it. Air is comprised of gas molecules that an object tries to push away as it falls through air. When a parachute falls through air, these gas molecules that do not want to move push back at the falling parachute causing it to slow down. The parachute continues to move through the air but comes across air resistance. Those molecules not wanting to move cause this resistance and exert an opposite force. Thereby, this is a perfect example of Newton’s Third Law of Motion: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
1. What are the materials needed for this experiment?
2. Draw a picture of your parachute labeling all the pieces (materials).
3. Do you think the parachute will fall faster with a 2nd paper clip? Will it fall even faster with a 4th paperclip?
4. What is causing the parachute to fall slowly down instead of just free falling through the air?
Friction: More Than Just Scratching the Surface
This activity will allow students to understand the concept of friction. They will understand that friction has two forces, a push or a pull. Students will be able to identify forces that push and forces that pull.
Materials: lids from plastic containers, paper punch, thread (about 40 cm), washers, sandpaper, paper clips, tape, paper, pen, activity worksheet, and Worksheet May the Force Be With You.
Time Duration: 15-25 minutes
Objective: Students will understand concept of physics. Students will observe and perform experiments that deal with forces. They will observe, perform, and make predictions.
- I will give a brief lecture on what friction is. I will describe the different forces that govern friction.
- Students will do small activity that gets them to think in terms of pushes and pulls, they will do May the Force Be With You
- After students complete small activity, they will come and get the designated materials to perform the experiment.
- In groups of two or four, they will make sure that they have all the right materials.
- Using a paper punch, students will carefully make a hole punch near the edge of the plastic container lid.
- Students will then tie one end of the thread to the hole.
- After unbending part of a paper clip, students will then tie it to the other end of the thread.
- Students will put the lid on the table and hang the paper clip over the end of the table
- Students will then place a washer on the lid.
- Students will gently push the lid from the side.
- Observing the previous step, how hard was it to move the lid.
- Hang one washer on the paper clip. Observe what happens as you try to slide the lid again.
- Continue to add washers on the paper clip and observe how many washers it takes for the lid to slowly slide along the table
- Tape a piece of sandpaper to the table, and continue to perform the last four steps.
- Observe how much harder or easier it is to slide the lid across the table.
- This time place two washers on the lid.
- Gently push the lid along the table, without the sandpaper. Observe if it was harder or easier for the lid to move.
- Find out how many washers you need to place on the paper clip, to have the lid slide along the table. Record your results.
- Now place two more washers on the lid, for a total of four. Repeat the previous step.
- Complete the following table and make observations of what is taking place.
A. Number of washers on lid
B. Number of washers on paper clip
- Make a graph, using the table. Place A on the horizontal axis, and B on the vertical axis.
- Write a sentence that describes what the graph shows.
- Have students understand the relationship that weight has on the force of friction.
- End of experiment.
Friction: More Than Just Scratching the Surface
1. With one washer on lid, how many washers did it take to make lid slide across table or desk?
2. Did you need to give the lid a little push, or did it slide on its own?
3. With lid sitting on sandpaper and one washer on lid, how many washers did you need to put on paper clip to get the lid moving?
4. Make a graph of the data collected of your table.
5. What does the graph show you about the way weight affects friction?
The Magic Boat
Area of Science: Physics
Grade Level: K-3(ages 5-7)
Overview: This activity allows students to make a macroscopic object (foil boat) move across the water on its own due to the breaking of surface tension by the dishwashing solution.
Materials Needed: Piece of foil 4 cm wide (2 inches) and 10 cm long (4 inches), large flat pan which will be filled with water, and a type of soap solution.
Directions: Take the piece of aluminum foil and fold it into a boat (power boat shape). Fill the pan with water and place the pointy side of the boat towards the water. Next drop a few drops of soap solution directly onto the water behind the aluminum boat and see the boat move across the water surface. Warning the activity can only be performed once. In order to repeat you must use new water.
Explanation of Activity: As the soap molecules in the dishwashing liquid spreads it breaks the surface tension of the water allowing the aluminum boat to be moved.
1) What occurred when you put the soap into the pan?
2) Why do you think this happened?
3) Can you think of a real life example of this experiment?
The Magic Boat
What you need:
1) a piece of aluminum foil.
2) A pan or bowl.
3) A soap solution.
What you do:
1) Cut the foil into a shape of a powerboat. Keep you boat only about 4 cm wide (2 inches) and 10 cm long (4 inches).
2) Gently place the boat into a pan full of water.
3) Squeeze a drop of any type of soap solution onto the water behind your boat.
What is happening?:
1) What occurred when you put the soap into the pan?
2) Why do you think this happened?
3) Can you think of a real life example of this experiment?
SCI 210 TR 430-545
Stored Energy Experiment
Coffee can with no ends
Two lids that fit the can
Heavy metal nut
Long rubber band
Time of Lesson
Fifteen to twenty minutes
1) Make two holes two to three inches apart equally distant from the center of the plastic lids.
2) Cut rubber band at one point and thread it through the holes of one of the lids.
3) Cross ends of the rubber band to form an “x” in the middle.
4) Use the string to tie the nut to the center of the rubber band (at the point where the “x” is made).
5) Thread the two remaining ends through the other holes in the remaining lid. Put the lid on the can and tie the ends in a knot outside the lid.
Roll the can away from you. As the can is moving away it will begin to slow down. When this happens say “come back to me”. The can will magically begin to move back towards you. You can also do this on a slight downward slope. The kids will be amazed when they see the can will actually climb its way back up the slope you rolled it down.
As the can rolls the weight at the center causes the rubber band to twist up and store energy. When it is twisted as tightly as possible it will have stored its maximum amount of energy and will come to a stop. As the rubber band begins to untwist itself it will also release its stored energy. The release of this stored energy will cause the can to roll back to its starting point.
To use balanced and unbalanced magnetic forces to compare the strengths of two magnets.
●4-foot (1.2-m) String
●Yard Stick (meterstick)
●2 Identical Magnets
Magnet Distance Test Data
The results will vary depending on the strengths of the magnets used.
If the magnets are of equal strength, the magnetic forces will be balanced and the distances from the paper clip will equal. A balanced force is one that is applied equally to an object from opposite directions. If the magnets are not equal strength, their combined force will be unbalanced and the paper clip will move toward the stronger magnet when both magnets are an equal distance away. An unbalanced force does not have an opposing force of equal strength.
Where Does a Magnet Work?
Items to be tested (paper, plastic, cup of water, aluminum foil).
Do you think that the force of magnetism can go through something
Could a magnetic force go through some materials and not others?
Make your predictions first. Do you think magnets will work...
Through paper? Yes___ No___
Through wood? Yes___ No___
Through glass? Yes___ No___
Through metal? Yes___ No___
Through plastic? Yes___ No___
Through water? Yes___ No___
Test Your Predictions:
Hold your magnet on one side of a piece of paper. Lay a paper clip on the other
side. Does the magnet attract the clip through the paper?
Follow the same steps with the rest of the materials: Did the magnet work
paper Yes___ No___
wood Yes___ No___
glass Yes___ No___
metal Yes___ No___
plastic Yes___ No___
water Yes___ No___
Does the thickness of the material matter?
What are your conclusions?
Thursday Lab: Science 210
Water’s Surface Tension
This activity will teach elementary students about the surface tension in water. This is a great experiment to do because water, unlike other liquid chemicals will not be harmful at all. To carry out this experiment, the first thing to do will be to explain to the students about the molecules in water. For example, water’s molecules are spread out (like most liquids), but on the top, the molecules tend to form a closer bond because they have no other molecules to bond with on top of them. They tend to push down on the other molecule beneath them, forming the surface tension.
The next step will be to hand out all the materials needed. The students will cut out a figure of a man for paper and tape it to a piece of paper clip. They will then proceed to make the man on the paper clip float on top of the water. (Explain that although the density of the paper clip is greater than of the water, the surface tension of the water allows the paper clip to float). Let the students have a race between their classmates on how fast they can blow their man on the paper clip to the other side of the pan, full of water.
The last step would be to let all the students have a cotton swab with dishwashing detergent. They should all (at once) dip the cotton swab into the water with their man floating in the pan. The reaction of the detergent and water should make the man on the paper clip sink instantly. Then, there should be a brief explanation that the dishwashing detergent breaks the surface tension of the water, causing the paper clip to sink.
Drawing of a man on paper
Surfin’ Surface Tension
1. What are we learning about today?
2. What determines if an object will sink to the bottom of the pan full of water?
3. What is happening to the water molecules on the surface?
4. What solution, if put into the water, will make the paper clip sink?
Match the pictures with the letters:
N = A ! = S p = O % = U s = N ~ = C
Y = E 1 = T r = I P = R O = F b = L
!%PON~Y 1Ys!rps r! ~ppb
__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
__ __ __ __ !!!
April 19, 2004
Swirls of Color
Grade Level: 2nd-4th
This activity deals with light. Students will be able to witness what happens when you add nail polish to water. They will also be able to separate light into colors.
I quart of water
Bottle of clear nail polish
~Place the bowl of water away from direct light
~While holding the brush from the nail polish allow one drop to fall into the water
~Watch the surface of the water. If needed move your head so that you can see from different angles
A rainbow of colors is seen in the layer of polish
The nail polish forms a thin layer over the water. When light rays hit the film, parts of the rays are reflected from the surface. The rainbow of colors is called a spectrum.
April 19, 2004
Swirls of Color
Plastic Wrap Hand Grabber
Grade level: 3rd through 6th
1. plastic wrap
Rubbing the plastic wrap on the wall gives it a net charge. When it is laid over the pencil, the two halves begin to droop on either side, due to gravitational force, but are repelled by electric force, since both halves carry the same type of charge. The result is that the halves of the plastic stand out at an angle. Now, when your hand is placed between the two halves, free charges in your hand like the ones on the plastic are driven away from the surface of your skin. In addition, polarized molecules in your hand will align with the charge unlike that on the plastic wrap near the outside surfaces of your hand. Thus, opposite types of charge are on the surface of your hand and the plastic wrap, causes the plastic to move towards and grab your hand.
· The first thing we need to do is lay the plastic wrap up against the wall
· Next, rub the plastic wrap briskly with your fingers
· Peel it off the wall and lay it across a pencil that is horizontal
· Now place your hands between the two sides of the plastic wrap
· The plastic wrap should have collapsed onto your hand
Discussion of Results:
· When we were rubbing the plastic wrap against the wall, it gave the wrap a net charge.
· When the plastic wrap was over the pencil the wrap began to droop on both sides, due to gravity, but are repelled by the electric forces since both halves carry the same type of charge
· Charges can either be positive or negative
· When two objects have the same type of charge like the two halves of the plastic wrap, they will repel against each other.
· Then, when you place your hand between the two halves of the plastic wrap it will attract to your hand.
Electrical Forces Worksheet
The Plastic Wrap Hand Grabber
1. Make a prediction about what you think will happen when you place the plastic wrap over the pencil.
2. What do you think will happen when you place your hand between the two halves of the plastic wrap?
3. Rubbing the plastic wrap on the wall gives it what kind of charge?
What caused the plastic wrap to act the way it did when you placed your hand between the two halves?
These are from the book where I got the experiment. I will bring the book on Tuesday for you to look at for your other experiments.
Plastic Wrap Hand Grabber
Lay a piece of plastic wrap against the wall and rub it briskly with your fingers. As you rub, it will adhere to the wall since it is becoming charged. Peel it off the wall and lay it across a horizontally held pencil. The two sides of the plastic will stand out at an angle form the vertical. Now place your hand between the two sides of the plastic. The plastic wrap will collapse on your hand!
Rubbing the plastic wrap on the wall gives it a net charge. When it is laid over the pencil, the two halves begin to droop on either side, due to gravitational force, but are repelled by electric force, since both halves carry the same type charge. The result is that the halves of the plastic stand out an angle. Now, when your hand is placed between the two halves, free charges in your hand like the ones on the plastic are driven away from the surface of your skin. In addition, polarized molecules in your hand will align with the charge unlike that on the plastic wrap near the outside surfaces of your hand. Thus, opposite types of charge are on the surface of your hand and the plastic wrap, which causes the plastic to move towards and grab your hand.
Here is what I prepared for the presentation
Today we are going to learn a little about Electric Forces. To help us we are going to do an activity first and then I will explain why the activity worked the way that it does
1. Plastic Wrap
i. My Note Everyone needs a good size piece of plastic wrap and a pencil
Ask the question: Does everyone have a plastic wrap and a pencil?
· The first thing we need to do is lay the plastic wrap up against the wall
· Then rub the plastic wrap briskly with your fingers.
· Watch me on this next step before you do it. Then peel it off the wall and lay it across a pencil that is horizontal
· Now place your hand between the two sides of the plastic wrap
· The plastic wrap should have collapse onto your hand
What caused the plastic wrap to collapse onto your hand?
What happened was Electric Forces?
Definition: An electric force is an attraction (draw) or repulsion between objects that carry an electric charge.
· When we were rubbing the plastic wrap against the wall that gave the wrap a net charge.
· When the plastic wrap was over the pencil the wrap began to droop on both sides, due to gravity, but are repelled by the electric forces since both halves carry the same type of charge (May need to draw to explain)
· Charges can either be positive or negative.
· When two objects have the same type of charge like the two halves of the plastic wrap, they will repeal against each other.
· Then when you place your hand between the two halves of the plastic wrap it will attract to your hand.
Ask: Does anyone know why this occurs?
The reason is that between your hand and the plastic wrap they have opposite charges.
Does anyone have any question?
27 April 2004
Discover how pressure affects vacuums by drinking through a straw
~ a cup with drinkable liquid for each child
~ two soda straws for each child
1. Place one straw in the liquid and drink
2. Place two straws in the liquid and drink
3. Now, place one straw in the liquid and one outside the cup and, the other end of both in your mouth and drink
Reducing the pressure inside a machine causes suction. The pressure of outside air, which is created by the weight of the atmosphere, is greater than the inside of the machine. This difference in pressure can then be put to work. In a vacuum cleaner, the pressure of the outside air forces material into the cleaner. Power brakes may use suction to boost braking.
When you suck through a straw, the air in the atmosphere presses down on the drink and pushes it up into your mouth. Placing one straw outside the cup equalizes the pressure, so you do not get as much liquid in the straw in the cup.
27 April 2004
1. First drink through one straw, and then drink through two. Do you get more or less liquid?
2. After placing one straw inside the cup and one outside, what happens?
3. Why don’t you get as much liquid through the straw in the cup in step 2?
Presented by Grace Yu
LENGTH OF LESSON:
Two class periods
Students will understand the following:
1. Static electricity is the cause of lightning.
2. Lightning forms because of an accumulation of electrical charges inside a cloud due to friction from dust, ice, and water droplets.
3. The bottom of a cloud becomes negatively charged and discharges a lightning strike when enough charge has built up.
Groups will need the following materials for their demonstrations:
Group 1: ground pepper; plastic utensil, such as a knife or a comb; wool or nylon cloth
Group 2: plastic comb, piece of wool or fur, metal doorknob
Group 3: two rubber balloons
Group 4: plastic combs, bowl of puffed rice
1. Review with your students what they know about cloud formation, thunder, and lightning storms. Tell them they are going to perform a series of simple demonstrations that will show how an accumulation of electrical charges inside a cloud causes a lightning strike.
2. Divide your class into small groups. Have each group perform one of the following demonstrations for the rest of the class.
3. Demonstration 1:
- Spread grains of ground pepper on a small area of a desktop.
- Vigorously rub a plastic utensil with a wool or nylon cloth to produce a negative charge.
- Hold the utensil about 1 inch over the mixture and observe what happens. (The utensil will pick up the pepper.)
- Record observation
4. Demonstration 2:
- Darken the room as much as possible.
- Rub a plastic comb with a piece of wool or fur.
- Hold the comb near a metal doorknob.
- Observe what happens. (Students will see tiny sparks.)
- Record observation
5. Demonstration 3:
- Blow up two balloons and rub them on your sleeve.
- Darken the room as much as possible.
- Rub the two balloons together.
- Observe what happens. (Students will see tiny sparks.)
- Record observation
6. Demonstration 4:
- Run a comb through your hair (only one student should use each comb).
- Put the comb into a bowl of dry puffed rice.
- Observe what happens. (Grains of rice will stick to the comb; after they lose their charge, they will fall off.)
- Record observation
7. After each group has performed its demonstration, explain that in each case, friction created a buildup of electrons, causing an electrical charge. This is known as static electricity. Tell students that in a storm cloud, friction from dust, ice, and water droplets produces an accumulation of charges, as did the friction in each of the demonstrations. It is this static electricity that causes lightning.
8. Have each student write a paragraph describing the demonstration his or her group performed and what group members observed. Paragraphs should be accompanied by illustrations and labeled diagrams. Invite students to share their explanations and illustrations.
9. Share with your class the following explanation of lightning from Simple Weather Experiments with Everyday Materials,by Muriel Mandell (Sterling Publishing Company, 1990):The violent air currents in thunderclouds move different-sized drops and dust particles at different speeds. Those of the same size and with similar amounts of electricity get concentrated in the same part of the cloud. A very high positive electrical charge is formed in the cold higher parts, while near the ground the thundercloud usually is negatively charged. The big difference between the charges at the top and bottom of the cloud creates a powerful voltage or electric pressure. This “push” sends a flash of lightning streaking through the cloud between those parts with opposite electric charges.
Frank Weisel, earth science teacher, Tilden Middle School, Rockville, Maryland.
STORMY WEATHER WORKSHEET
RECORD YOUR OBSERVATIONS- WHAT HAPPENED?
WHAT DID YOU SEE?
WRITE A PARAGRAPH FOR EACH PICTURE TO DESCRIBE THE PICTURES.
During thunderstorm conditions the turbulence in the cloud causes the charges to separate in such a way that the negative charges concentrate in the base of the cloud. Since like charges repel, some of the negative charges on the ground are pushed down away from the surface, leaving a net positive charge on the surface.
Purpose – Students will learn that water is a great coolant.
Materials: Water, 2 Balloons for each pupil, Matchsticks
First, blow up the balloon and tie. Light a matchstick and place under the balloon. The balloon breaks and pops because the heat/fire from the matchstick melted the rubber. Now to the second balloon, add water and tie. Directly place matchstick fire under the water. The balloon does not pop. The water inside the balloon is absorbing the head, and the balloon does not melt because it’s not absorbing any heat. Sometimes, the fire will create a little puncture and water will drip out.
Science Experiment: Balloons
Why does the balloon with no water break in the flame?
How does the balloon with water in it resist breaking in the flame?
Experiment Presentation #1
Miniature Lava Light
To give the children a better understanding on what density is and how things that are less dense than water float on water and denser things will sink.
Give a brief explanation of what density is. Density is the measurement of how much a given volume of an object weights. It is the heaviness or lightness of materials of the same size. The masses of the atoms and the spacing between them determine the density of materials.
Clear, plastic cup
Pour about 3 inches of water into the cup. Pour about one inch of vegetable oil into the cup. Add one drop of food coloring to the cup. Shake/sprinkle some salt on top of the oil for about five seconds. You may add more salt to observe its behavior as it falls into the container.
This experiment shows the density differences between salt, water, food coloring, and oil. Students will have learned that oil floats on water because it is lighter than water. Thus, water is denser than oil. They will also learn that salt is heavier than water because as we poured the salt, it sank, taking a blob of oil, which in turn, got released once the salt was dissolved and rushed to the top again.
Miniature Lava Light
1 Clear Plastic Cup
What do you think will happen when we mix the oil, the salt and the food coloring with the water? _________________________________________
Pour about 3 inches of water into the cup. Next, pour about 1 inch of vegetable oil into the cup. Add one drop of food coloring to the cup. Then, sprinkle some salt on top of the oil while you slowly count to five.
How did the oil react once it was mixed with water? Which one is on top?
How did the food coloring react to the oil? How did it react to the water?
Describe the order from bottom to top of the items we poured into the cup:
Pluck- A- Cup- Strummer
Science Standards: 2nd grade:
g. Students know sound is made by vibrating objects
and can be described by its pitch and volume.
Plastic or paper cup
Needle or sharp object
The pitch of a sound is determined by the frequency of vibration of the source, in other words, how many times it vibrates per second.
1. Cut rubber bands to make a single long string. It
should be at least 15cm unstretched. It its not you
may need to tie to rubber bands together. You also
need rubber bands that are less than 15cm.
2. Using a sharp object make a small hole in the
center of the bottom of the cup.
3. tie a knot in one end of the rubber band then run
the string through he hole in the cup bottom. Place a
piece of tape across the knot inside the cup.
4. hold the cup to one ear and gently pluck the
5. Discover how many differently pitched sounds you
Students are challenged to discover the range of
pitch that can be played by plucking a rubber band
attached to a cup. The length of the rubber band is
the main factor affecting the pitch of the sound.
Holding the rubber band at different points along its
length should produce lower pitched sounds with great
lengths and high-pitched sounds with shorter lengths.
Length has a much greater impact on a pitch than does
the degree of stretch.
pitch, in music, the position of a tone in the musical scale, today designated by a letter name and determined by the frequency of vibration of the source of the tone. Pitch is an attribute of every musical tone; the fundamental, or first harmonic, of any tone is perceived as its pitch. The earliest successful attempt to standardize pitch was made in 1858, when a commission of musicians and scientists appointed by the French government settled upon an A of 435 cycles per second; this standard was adopted by an international conference at Vienna in 1889. In the United States, however, the prevailing standard is an A of 440 cycles per second. Before the middle of the 19th cent., pitch varied according to time, place, and medium of musical performance; since the classical period the trend has been gradually upward. The relative pitch of a tone, in contrast to absolute pitch, is an expression of its pitch in relation to the pitch of some other tone taken as a standard.
Pitch and Frequency : A sound wave, like any other wave, is introduced into a medium by a vibrating object. The vibrating object is the source of the disturbance which moves through the medium. The vibrating object which creates the disturbance could be the vocal chords of a person, the vibrating string and sound board of a guitar or violin, the vibrating tines of a tuning fork, or the vibrating diaphragm of a radio speaker. Regardless of what vibrating object is creating the sound wave, the particles of the medium through which the sound moves is vibrating in a back and forth motion at a given frequency. The frequency of a wave refers to how often the particles of the medium vibrate when a wave passes through the medium. The frequency of a wave is measured as the number of complete back-and-forth vibrations of a particle of the medium per unit of time. If a particle of air undergoes 1000 longitudinal vibrations in 2 seconds, then the frequency of the wave would be 500 vibrations per second. A commonly used unit for frequency is the Hertz (abbrviated Hz), where
1 Hertz = 1 vibration/second
As a sound wave moves through a medium, each particle of the medium vibrates at the same frequency. This is sensible since each particle vibrates due to the motion of its nearest neighbor. The first particle of the medium begins vibrating, at say 500 Hz, and begins to set the second particle into vibrational motion at the same frequency of 500 Hz. The second particle begins vibrating at 500 Hz and thus sets the third particle of the medium into vibrational motion at 500 Hz. The process continues throughout the medium; each particle vibrates at the same frequency. And of course the frequency at which each particle vibrates is the same as the frequency of the original source of the sound wave. Subsequently, a guitar string vibrating at 500 Hz will set the air particles in the room vibrating at the same frequency of 500 Hz which carries a sound signal to the ear of a listener which is detected as a 500 Hz sound wave.
The back-and-forth vibrational motion of the particles of the medium would not be the only observable phenomenon occurring at a given frequency. Since a sound wave is a pressure wave, a detector could be used to detect oscillations in pressure from a high pressure to a low pressure and back to a high pressure. As the compression (high pressure) and rarefaction (low pressure) disturbances move through the medium, they would reach the detector at a given frequency. For example, a compression would reach the detector 500 times per second if the frequency of the wave were 500 Hz. Similarly, a rarefaction would reach the detector 500 times per second if the frequency of the wave were 500 Hz. Thus the frequency of a sound wave not only refers to the number of back-and-forth vibrations of the particles per unit of time, but also refers to the number of compression or rarefaction disturbances which pass a given point per unit of time. A detector could be used to detect the frequency of these pressure oscillations over a given period of time. The typical output provided by such a detector is a pressure-time plot as shown below.
Since a pressure-time plot shows the fluctuations in pressure over time, the period of the sound wave can be found by measuring the time between successive high pressure points (corresponding to the compressions) or the time between successive low pressure points (corresponding to the rarefactions). As discussed in an earlier unit, the frequency is simply the reciprocal of the period. For this reason, a sound wave with a high frequency would correspond to a pressure time plot with a small period - that is, a plot corresponding to a small amount of time between successive high pressure points. Conversely, a sound wave with a low frequency would correspond to a pressure time plot with a large period - that is, a plot corresponding to a large amount of time between successive high pressure points. The diagram below shows two pressure-time plots, one corresponding to a high frequency and the other to a low frequency.
Pitch: Pluck- A- Cup- Strummer
Does holding the rubber band closer or further from
the cup change the pitch?
What other ways can you change the rubber
string to make different pitched notes?
What is the difference between the two lengths?
Which one do you think produces a better pitch?
Sci 210 Lab
Grade Level: 1st –3rd
Objective: Is to see if adding salt to water will melt the ice cube faster, or if would make any difference.
Compare results with the rest of the groups in your class.
Student Worksheet for the “Ice Melting Experiment”
Question for the experiment: Do you think adding salt to water will make a difference in melting ice? How? What is your hypothesis?
Record your results:
Was your hypothesis correct?
Liquid Rainbow Experiment
a. 5 pitchers, milk jugs, or other large containers
b. Food coloring- 4 colors
c. Transparent drinking straws
d. Pickling or Kosher salt
e. 6 containers for each student or group
The purpose of this experiment is to challenge students to layer five liquids of different density in a drinking straw. They will learn how to observe and interpret data as well as learn the basic concept of density.
Prepare five salt solutions, each with a different density. Use the following recipe:
Pitcher #1: 1 gallon water + 0 cups of salt + bottle of yellow coloring.
Pitcher #2: 1 gallon water + 1/2 cups of salt + bottle of green coloring.
Pitcher #3: 1 gallon water + 1 cups of salt + no coloring (clear).
Pitcher #4: 1 gallon water + 1 1/2 cups of salt + bottle of red food coloring.
Pitcher #5: 1 gallon water + 2 cups of salt + bottle of blue food coloring.
Mix the solutions thoroughly, until all salt is dissolved.
Pickling salt is preferred for this activity because it does not have any
additives and will not make cloudy solutions, but regular salt can be
substituted. Add the entire contents of one of the small bottles of food
coloring, usually sold in sets of four at the grocery store. Clear or
translucent drinking straws must be used so that the colors of the different
solutions can be observed when in the straw. Each student or group of students
will need six small containers; five to hold the solutions and one to be used
as a waste container.
Do not allow students to see how much salt is in the solutions. Place the five pitchers in a random order. Distribute a sample of each of the five solutions to students. Allow them to practice placing a finger over the end of a straw and "picking up" a sample of a solution.
Direct them to select two of the solutions at random. Draw a
small portion of the first solution into the straw. While holding the solution
in the straw, lower the end of the straw into the second liquid. Draw a sample
of the second solution into the straw. If the first solution floats on the
second, the first is less dense. If the first mixes or falls through the
second; the first is more dense.
By making comparisons of all five liquids and making record of each trial, student will establish an order of density for the five liquids. As an extension, challenge students to get all five solutions layered in the straw.
Students will also develop their own technique for drawing a small sample of the solutions into the straw (holding their thumb over the end of the straw, using it as a air valve). They will be challenged to determine a technique to get all five solutions in the straw. They will learn to lower the straw progressively lower into each solution.
Liquid Rainbow Worksheet
What do you think will happen when you place the different color liquids in the straw? Any ideas?
Now conduct the experiment!
Why does this happen? Is there something special about the color of the liquid?
Let’s Learn Some New Words!
Density: A measure of the concentration of mass in a substance. The numerical value for density is calculated by dividing the mass of a given amount of the substance by its volume.
Mass: The measure of an object’s inertia. Mass is also defined by gravitation. The gravitational force between two objects depends upon their masses.
Inertia: The resistance of an object to any change in its motion.
Volume: The amount of space an object takes up.
Can you think of any real life examples similar to the liquid rainbow experiment? Write down what you can think of.
Here is a hint!
1. Film canisters that the lids fit inside the canister shaft.
2. Warm water is best if available.
3. Alka-seltzer tablets.
1. Go outside with all materials.
2. Fill the film canister half full with warm water.
3. Place a 4th of the tablet into water.
4. Put lid on.
5. Quickly, turn upside down.
6. Back away.
Relates to different forms of energy and chemical reactions.
Alka-Seltzer Rocket Worksheet
Name of scientist: __________________________
1) Describe the steps to get the Alka-Seltzer Rocket to work?
2) How did you try to improve your Alka-Seltzer Rocket?
3) Which improvement worked the best? The worst? Why do you think so?
Title: Bubble Gum Physics
The purpose of this activity is to have students practice their math by using chewing bubble gum to measure speed and acceleration.
Students will be able to us a timer to determine the number of “chomps” they can make in any given time.
Students will be able to collect the data that they just input and use it to calculate their chomping speed.
Students will be able to make predictions for different amount of time, such as 5 minutes or 1 day.
Materials or Resources Needed
Bubble Gum Physics worksheet
First, I will introduce the topic by telling the class that we will be learning how to calculate speed and acceleration. This experiment involves chewing bubble gum.
Second, I will pass out the chewing bubble gum and the timer.
Third, I will ask the students to time how many times they can chew the bubble gum in 30 seconds using the timer. Students are to record their data in the work sheet.
Fourth, after five trials, I will introduce how to calculate speed to the class and then have the class calculate their chomping speed for the 5 trials.
Fifth, introduction of average and then ask the class to find their average speed.
Six, have students work on part B of the worksheet.
Bubble Gum Physics Name __________________________
Obtain a piece of bubble gum from your teacher and
start chewing to get ready for the experiments!
Part A: Chomper Challenge
(1) For this experiment, you will conduct five trials to determine the number of chomps you can do in
30 seconds. A chomp is defined as a “big chew”, or the kind that usually causes you to get caught with
(2) Use a timer to determine the number of chomps you can do in 30 seconds. Record your data in
the chart. Repeat the same process for the other trials.
(3) What is your average speed? Round answers to the hundredth. ________ chomps/second
(4) Based on your average chomping speed, how many chomps could you do in five minutes, one
hour, or one day? Show your work!
5 min = _______ chomps 1 hour = _______ chomps 1 day = _______ chomps
Part B: Speedy Chompers
(1) Use a timer to determine the number of chomps you can do in 1
minute. As the time reaches each point, record the number of chomps
you have completed. Do not stop the timer as you record your data.
You may want to practice a few times before running an “official” trial.
T. Trimpe 2001
Trial Chomps Time Speed
Speed = # of Chomps ÷ Time
Round speeds to the nearest hundredth!
(2) Calculate your chomping speed at each point (20 sec, 40 sec, and 60 sec) using the data from
your experiment. Show your work! Round all answers to the nearest hundredth!
Speed at T = 20 sec = _______ chomps ÷ 20 sec = _________ chomps/sec
Speed at T = 40 sec = _______ chomps ÷ 40 sec = _________ chomps/sec
Speed at T = 60 sec = _______ chomps ÷ 60 sec = _________ chomps/sec
(3) Did you maintain a constant rate? Explain.
Think About It!
Write a paragraph to summarize the results of your experiments.
Are your results accurate and reliable? Why or why not?
What other experiments could you do with bubble gum?
T. Trimpe 2001
Title: Break it Up
To show students that different color will bleed out of black ink marker.
Students will be able to use technique as paper chromatography to separate mixtures of colored inks.
Students will know the different colors which make up black in are by the water traveling up the coffee filter s trip at different rates.
Students should be able to tell which colors of ink travel faster than others by examining the finish strips.
Materials or Resources Needed
Dark blue washable color marker
Black washable color marker
Pen or a pencil
First, I will introduce the topic by telling the class that we will be learning about chromatology. We will be conducting an experiment with black and blue ink to see what colors will be pulled out from these inks.
Second, tell student the materials that they need and ask them to come pick it up
Third, students will pour 1 inch of alcohol into the plastic cup. Cut two strips of coffee filter with the scissors (it should be 1 inch wide). Cut the end of one tip so that it will have a pointy end.
Fourth, using the black marker, make a dot one of the strips. Do the same for the second strip with the blue marker. (wait for the ink to dry)
Fifth, place the tip of the black strip into the alcohol (you can use a pencil or pen and poke a hole into the top of the strip to hold the strip). Do the same thing for the blue strip and observe what happens to them. When ink travel up to the pencil, remove the strips.
Break it up!
1. From your experiment, what did you observe?
2. Would you have suspected this from the color you have started with?
3. What colors do you think will come out of a red ink marker?
4. What is your conclusion? Does this experiment only works with black ink markers?
Sci 210Lab, Tuesday
Structure and Function of Your Hand
(Re-modified Version: based on a previous experiment by former Sci210 student, Casandra Campbell.)
The purpose of this activity is for children from 3rd to 12th grade to explore the functions of their hand, and what it would be like if the structure was changed. This experiment will allow students to examine what specific structures in a hand are necessary to carry out daily activities. They will see how hard it would be without these special structures like thumbs and pointer fingers.
Masking tape, Popcorn Seeds,
Paper bags, Beans (uncooked)
Pencils (for taping), Toothpicks,
Pencils (for manipulating), Plastic utensils,
Chalk or dry erase board.
SCI 210L, spring ‘04
student report I
The Structure and Function of Your Hand
Pick up a pencil, and write both your name and the title of this worksheet below; look at the movements that your hand makes as it writes:
Describe something about the way your hand moved as you wrote:
In groups of four, listen as the activity is explained.
Draw the four hand-types in the space below.
Predict which type of hand will be able to pick up the most objects.
Begin the activity, note how your hand moves and how the hands of your partners move. Be ready to explain any differences or similarities.
Now that you have finished the activity, on your sketches above, circle your hand-type.
Now draw a square around the hand-type that was able to pick up the most number of objects. Draw a triangle around the hand-type that picked up the least number of objects.
On the back of this sheet, explain why you think one hand-type worked better than another. With your partners, make a list of different things that your own hands are able to do.
Student Activity 1
Goal: In this activity, students explore how sliding friction increases with downward force.
· Lid from plastic container
· Paper Punch
· Thread, 40cm
· Paper clip
1. Using a paper punch, make a hole near the edge of the plastic container lid. Tie one end of the thread to this hole.
2. Unbend part of a paperclip and tie it to the other end of the thread. Put the lid on the table and hang the paperclip over the end of the table. Put two washers on the lid.
3. Gently push the lid from the side. Find out how many washers you must hang on the paperclip so the lid will slowly slide along the table.
4. Repeat steps three using more washers.
The lid experiences acceleration by way of force of friction from the weight of the washers. The more force the lid endures, its speed will increase. For this activity, you can have students graph the results. The graph should show a regular increase in the number of washers pulling the lid as more washers are added to the lid. Have students try to explain what is happening and estimate what will happen with more washers.
Maldonado, Jennifer Noelie
April 13, 2004
Science Lab Report I
The Mr. Bunny Balloon
Materials: all materials can be used per person or for a group of 2-3 people
Plastic bottle approximately 1 liter in size
Balloons of circular/oval shape (with a face drawn on the balloon)
½ cup of vinegar
1 tablespoon of baking soda
Directions: Key Terms should be reviewed prior to the activity and then reviewed again (if time allows) after the activity. Each table/ group/ pair of people will be given the supplies to do the experiment.
1. Place a tablespoon of baking soda onto the tissue paper.
2. Roll the tissue into a tube making sure the baking soda does not fall out. Twist the ends closed like a tootsie roll.
3. Pour the ½ cup of vinegar into the plastic bottle and then drop the tissue paper wrapped baking soda into the bottle.
4. As quickly as possible, slip the neck of the balloon over the bottle and hold it in place.
5. Watch the balloon slowly blow up.
**It may help to stretch the balloon out prior to doing the activity. This will make it easier for the balloon to fill (magically) with air. It is also creative to draw a face on the balloon. That way, when the balloon is filled with air, the face drawn appears and adds an artistic element to the science activity.
Objective: Action, reaction, and then a result. Students will learn about the specific state of matter called gas. Students will also learn about chemical reactions and the difference between a reactant and a product. When the tissue paper tears apart while it is wet with the vinegar, the vinegar is able to mix with the baking soda creating a chemical reaction. This chemical reaction is taking the power of baking soda and the liquid vinegar creating a gas. The gas created is called Carbon Dioxide, CO2. The gas, produced in the bottle, is then forced out of the bottle and since the balloon is on top, the balloon is filled with CO2 – just as it would be if a person was blowing their own CO2 into the balloon.
Explanation: What is happening is that the baking soda and the vinegar (two reactants) are creating a chemical reaction, which forms a gas called Carbon Dioxide (product). This gas then fills up the balloon as the definition of a gas is to take the shape of its container. In this case, CO2s container is the balloon. A student can learn about products, reactants, states of matter, chemical reactions, and the expanding of a balloon.
Key Terms for students would be:
Expand: To increase in size or volume.
Gas: A state of matter, such as air, that has no definite shape, but takes the shape of the container it is in.
Chemical Reaction: Any change which alters the chemical properties of a substance or which forms a new substance. During a chemical reaction, products are formed from reactants.
Reactants: the substances present at the beginning of a chemical reaction
Products: The substances formed in a chemical reaction
References: The Usborne Illustrated Dictionary of Chemistry
Dr. Hoeling’s webpage: http://www.csupomona.edu~bmhoeling
Baking soda (reactant) + Vinegar (reactant) = CO2 (product) --à Chemical Reaction
Science Lab Report I: The Mr. Bunny Balloon: Inflate a Balloon Magically
~ presented by Jennifer Maldonado, SCI 210, Dr. Hoeling, April 13, 2004
c.) Chemical Reactions:
SCI 210-Spring ‘04
April 27, 04
Grade Level: 3rd –6th
v Measuring cups and spoons
v Dawn or other dishwashing liquid
v Tap water
v A wire coat hanger
v A shallow tub or tray about 18 inches in diameter
v The student will be able to describe in writing what is surface tension.
v The student will be able explain why the solution creates bubbles.
v The student will be able to identify different patterns and colors in the bubbles.
1) Mix a bubble solution of 2/3 cup of Dawn dishwashing liquid and 1 ½ tablespoons glycerin in one gallon of water.
§ (It is found that more durable bubble form if you let this solution age for at least a day, preferably for a week)
2) Bend the coat hanger into a flat hoop with the hook sticking up at an angle to serve as a handle.
§ (Bubble will form more consistently when the hoop is as circular as possible)
3) Wrap yarn tightly around the wire of the hoop.
§ (The yarn will absorb the bubble solution, which will make the hoop easier to use)
4) Fill the shallow tray with bubble solution and submerge the hoop in the solution.
a. Then tilt the hoop toward you until it is almost vertical, and lift it from the tray.
o (You should have a bubble film extending across the hoop)
b. Swing the hoop through the air to make a giant bubble.
o (When you have a big bubble, twist the hoop to seal it off at the end.
v Bubbles fascinate people of all ages. A bubble is a thin skin of liquid surrounding a gas, often times air. This skin has an elastic quality that often comes from soap. What’s happening is that there exists a strong mutual attraction of water molecules for each other, known as surface tension. Normally, surface tension makes it impossible to stretch the water out to make a thin film. Soap reduces the surface tension and allows a film to form. Here is where the bubble develops. A soap bubble will have patterns of different colors that are caused by interference. This is a result of light waves reflected from the inner and outer surfaces of the soap film that interfere with each other constructively or destructively, depending on the thickness of the bubble and the color of the light.
o You can make other devices to create large bubbles. One of the easiest is a length of yarn threaded through two drinking straws, with the ends tied to make a loop any size you want. Not only will this device make large bubbles, but you can twist the straws to make film surfaces with different shapes.
SCI 210 Spring ‘04
1) What is the purpose of using the hanger and yarn or the straws and yarn?
2) What is a bubble?
3) Why can you make more durable bubbles with your solution than with water by itself?
4) What is interference?
v 5) Dip the hoop in the solution and hold it up to the light without forming a bubble. What patterns (and changes in patterns) do you observe?
two 2 liter Plastic Bottles, Electrical tape , a rubber washer water, food coloring
Fill the bottles up with water. Put about three drops of food coloring in each bottle. Tape the bottles together with heavy electrical tape. Put a rubber washer between the two bottles to avoid leaks and for extra support. a rubber washer. Turn the bottles over and move your hand in a swirling motion. Watch the Vortex appear inside of the clear bottle.
To teach students about forces of nature, tornados, whirlpools in a sink or tub, swirling vortices in rivers and oceans, and hurricanes.
Estimated time of completion:
Pham, Xuan Phuong
The Milky Magic Project is an experiment with swirls of colors. The materials needed are: 1 whole cup homogenized milk, an empty pie plate, any food coloring of your choice, and 1 tablespoon of liquid Palmolive soap. The milk must be homogenized because it means that the fat has been made very fine and it is spread out well within the milk.
The first step is to pour a half an inch of the homogenized milk into the empty pie plate. The second step is to ask the class, “What will happen if the food coloring is added into the milk?” Then, add the food coloring and observe. The food coloring should not react in any way, but it remains still within the milk. The third step is to ask the class, “What will happen if the soap is added into the milk?” Then, add the soap and observe. The food coloring should start moving in a circular motion within the milk, mixing into the milk and creating an image of swirls of colors.
The result of this creation of swirls of colors is due to the mixture of negative and positive particles. Soap particles are polar particles, in which one end of the particle has a positive charge and the other has a negative charge. Considering that opposites attract, the positive ends of the soap particles attracts to the negative ends of the fat particles in the milk. As the fat particles move, they move the food coloring also. This movement causes the food coloring to mix within the milk, resulting in swirls of color.
Magic Science By: Jim Wiese
Name of Scientist: __________________________
Partner’s Name: ___________________________
1. Before adding the food coloring into the milk, describe what reaction you think will occur when you add the food coloring into the milk.
2. After adding the food coloring into the milk, describe what you have observed.
3. Before adding the soap into the milk, describe what reaction you think will occur when you add the soap into the milk.
4. After adding the soap into the milk, describe what you have observed.
5. After observing the experiment, explain why you think it reacted the way it did?
April 20, 2004
There’s Air in There!
Materials you will need:
Questions: Did any water enter the bottle? What do you think is keeping more
water from entering the bottle?
Now tilt the bottle to the side to allow some air to escape.
Question: What happened to the level of the water inside the bottle?
Question: What do you observe about the level of water in the bottle now?
Question: What happened to the water coming out of the hole? Why?
Questions: Does the water still stay in the bottle? What would happen to the water if you loosened the cap when the bottle is upright?
Question: Which bottle empties first? Is it the bottle with the hole or without the hole?
The Best of Wonder Science. Delmar Publishers: Boston, 1997.
There’s Air in There!
Name of Scientist:_______________
Name of Partner: ________________
1. After pushing the bottle down into the water look at the mouth of the bottle, did any water enter the bottle? What is keeping more water from entering the bottle?
2. After you covered the mouth of the bottle with your hand, what happened to the water coming out of the hole?
Why do you think this is happening?
3. What do you observe when the cap is on the bottle?
4. Does the water come out of the hole with the balloon on the bottle?
5. What do you notice when you pull up on the balloon?
TAKE A WHIRL WITH A
Partner’s Name: __________________________
1) What does it do as it falls? Does it always spin in the same direction?
2) What happens if you take the paper clip off? Try adding an extra paper clip?
3) Try making the blades longer or shorter? How do you think these changes would affect the way the whirler moves?
4) What is aerodynamics?
May 6, 2004
Will the Candy Float or Sink?
SUBJECT: Physics and Mathematics
GRADE LEVEL: 3rd – 5TH
STRATEGY: As a class or in small groups
TIME: 10 – 20 minutes
OBJECTIVE: The lab will teach students about buoyancy, density and displacement. Students will be able to distinguish the properties, which allow objects to sink or float. This lab will also teach the students about Archimedes principle, that a floating object will displace a volume of fluid that has a weight equal to the weight of the object that is floating.
*Supper Bubble, M&M, Whoppers, Reese’s, Starburst
*A bowl or a 2 liter soda bottle cut in half.
*Scale to weight the candy
1. Pass out the scale
2. Give each student or small group, one piece of each of the different types of
3. Then have the students weigh the pieces of candy on a scale before they make their predictions.
5. Ask the students to decide whether or not they think each of the candies above will sink or float. Tally their answers on the table on the chalkboard.
6. Fill up the bowl
7. Test your predictions by placing each piece of candy in the water one at a time.
8. Mark on the table whether the candy floated or sank.
*Graph the results of our experiment
* Check to see which candies floated.
Which candies do you think will float?
Why do you think the candy floats?
Graph the results of our experiment.
BUILDING AN ELECTROMAGNET
How does an electromagnet work?
1. Long piece of paper wire
4. AA, C, or D battery
5. Paper clips
1. Leaving about 3 inches of one end of the wire free, wrap the wire around the screwdriver 10 times.
2. Tape one end of the wire to the negative terminal (marked with a “-“) of the battery.
3. Hold the handle of the screwdriver in one hand while you touch the free end of the wire to the positive terminal (marked with a “+”) of the battery.
4. See how many paper clips you can pick up and hold with screwdriver.
5. Remove the free wire from the battery and wind another 10 loops around the screwdriver.
6. Repeat the experiment and count the number of paper clips you can pick up.
7. Again, remove the free wire from the battery.
8. Wind any remaining wire around the screwdriver, leaving about 3 inches of wire free and repeat the experiment.
Questions for the Scientist:
1. What made the screwdriver turn into a magnet? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
2. How did you turn the electromagnet on and off? __________________________________________________________.
3. What effect did adding more coils to the screwdriver have on the number of paper clips you could pick up? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
4. What advantages might there be to using a magnet that can be turned on and off? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
Since one wire is known to produce a magnetic field, wrapping a wire into a series of loops or coils strengthens that effect. These coils are called solenoids; when they are used with a metallic core (like a screwdriver), they produce surprisingly strong magnetic fields. When an ordinary nail is exposed to those fields, it, too, becomes magnetized, as long as the field is there.
Words to Know:
Electromagnet: a magnet made by passing electrical current through a wire.
April 22, 2004
Students will be introduced to the concepts of air pressure and surface area. Students will also be encouraged to make modifications to their hovercrafts in order to create the best hovercraft. This activity will introduce students to the scientific method by changing one variable at a time and then testing the results of the changes and writing down their observations.
2 paper plates
2 paper rolls
1 strip of brown paper bag (5cm thick)
1 strip of plastic bag (5cm thick)
Long table top or counter
Observation charts worksheet
Blow dryer (optional)
How to build your hovercraft:
1. Stand the paper tube on the center of each plate and trace around it with a pencil.
2. Carefully cut out the circles.
3. Turn the paper plates upside down and place a paper roll snugly into the opening of each plate.
4. For one of the plates make a skirt out of the brown paper strip by taping it around the edge.
5. For the other plate, make a skirt out of the plastic strip by taping it around the edge.
6. Set the plates on the countertop. Adjust the paper roll so that it does not touch the table.
Now that hovercrafts are built it is time to test them.
1. Place the two different hovercrafts on a long counter or table and blow into the paper tubes. Watch carefully and write down your observations.
2. Next test them by using the blow dryer to move them by concentrating the flow of air into the tubes. Write down your observations.
3. Make design modifications to your hovercrafts.
a. Try changing the sizes of the paper tubes and testing which ones create the best results.
b. You can use different sizes and shapes of paper plates to see the differences in how they work
c. You can also try using aluminum foil or wax paper for the skirts and determine which skirts give the best results.
d. Give students a chance to come up with different designs if time permits.
Hovercrafts float over the ground or water on a cushion of air trapped inside the skirt. Gasses, like air, are made of tiny particles. When these particles are trapped inside a container, they fill the container and push against the walls. Air pressure is the force all the tiny gas particles make on the walls of a container. The shape of the hovercraft is very important. The bottom must be very long and wide to make a big container for the air particles to push against and lift the craft.
Compare how each plate moves. How does the weight of the skirt affect how the hovercraft hovers? Chart your results.
1. The heavy skirt…____________________________________
The light skirt…_____________________________________
How does the amount of air affect hovering?
2. Less air…__________________________________________
How does the size of the tube affect hovering?
3. Long tube…_________________________________________
What would happen if you changed the shape of the model?
Challenge your partner to a hover race with your best models. Which pilot hovers the model to the far side of the table fastest?
Remote Control Roller
Rub a balloon on your head, then watch a soda can race across the floor
materials: Empty soda can/ blown-up balloon/your hair
1.) Put the can on its side on a table or the floor. Hold it with your finger until it stays still.
2.) Rub the balloon back and forth on your hair really fast.
3.) Hold the balloon about an inch in front of the can. The can will start to roll, even though you are not touching it.
4.) Move the balloon away from the can-slowly-and the can will follow the balloon.
5.) If you move the balloon to the other side of the can, the can will roll in the other direction.
How fast will the can roll?
How far can you roll the can before it stops?
Will it roll uphill?
What happens when you hold the ballon near your arm?
Hold the balloon (charged) up to the stream from the faucet. What happens?
April 28, 2004
· To identify the states of matter.
· To test the states of matter and their properties.
1. Put a 1/2 cup of cornstarch into the bowl. Add ¼ cup of water slowly, mixing the cornstarch and water with the plastic stir until all the powder is wet.
2. Use your fingers to scrape up a handful of material from the bowl. As you scrape it up, does it feel different than the material in the rest of the bowl? Does the material feel different when you squeeze it quickly between your fingers than when it just sits in the palm of your hand?
3. Gather the material into a glob in one area of the bowl. Does your finger go further into the glob if you poke it hard or if you push your finger gently into it?
4. Try the following activities with your ooze:
Ø Pick up a handful and squeeze it. Stop squeezing and it will drip through your fingers.
Ø Rest your fingers on the surface of the Ooze. Let them sink down to the bottom of the bowl. Then try to pull them out fast. What happens?
Ø Take a blob and roll it between your hands to make a ball. Then stop rolling. The Ooze will trickle away between your fingers.
5. Now experiment to see if you can find the exact amount of water to make the material that you like best!
What's going on with the ooze?
Your Ooze is made up of tiny, solid particles of cornstarch suspended in water. Chemists call this type of mixture a colloid. As you found out when you experimented with your Ooze, this colloid behaves strangely. When you bang on it with a spoon or quickly squeeze a handful of Ooze, it freezes in place, acting like a solid. The harder you push, the thicker the Ooze becomes. But when you open your hand and let your Ooze ooze, it drips like a liquid. Try to stir the Ooze quickly with a finger, and it will resist your movement. Stir it slowly, and it will flow around your finger easily.
Back in the 1700s, Isaac Newton identified the properties of an ideal liquid. Water and other liquids that have the properties that Newton identifies are call Newtonian fluids. Your Ooze doesn't act like Newton's ideal fluid. It's a non-Newtonian fluid.
There are many non-Newtonian fluids around. They don't all behave like your Ooze, but each one is weird in its own way. Ketchup, for example, is a non-Newtonian fluid. (The scientific term for this type of non-Newtonian fluid is thixotropic. That comes from the Greek words thixis, which means "the act of handling" and trope, meaning "change".)
Ketchup, like Ooze, is a non-Newtonian fluid. Physicists say that the best way to get ketchup to flow is to turn the bottle over and be patient. Smacking the bottom of the bottle actually slows the ketchup down!
Quicksand is a non-Newtonian fluid that acts more like your Ooze--it gets more viscous when you apply a shearing force. If you ever find yourself sinking in a pool of quicksand (or a vat of cornstarch and water), try swimming toward the shore very slowly. The slower you move, the less the quicksand or cornstarch will resist your movement.
Put a 1/2 cup of cornstarch into the bowl. Add ¼ cup of water slowly, mixing the cornstarch and water with the plastic stir until all the powder is wet.
Use your fingers to scrape up a handful of material from the bowl. As you scrape it up, does it feel different than the material in the rest of the bowl?
Does the material feel different when you squeeze it quickly between your fingers than when it just sits in the palm of your hand? How?
Gather the material into a glob in one area of the bowl. Does your finger go further into the glob if you poke it hard or if you push your finger gently into it?
Pick up a handful and squeeze it. Stop squeezing and it will drip through your fingers. Rest your fingers on the surface of the Ooze. Let them sink down to the bottom of the bowl. Then try to pull them out fast. What happens?
Take a blob and roll it between your hands to make a ball. Then stop rolling. What happens to the material?
What amount of water gives you the material that you like best?
Science Lesson 1
The purpose of the lesson is to display the reason why we see colors. The way some colors are reflected and the reasons others aren’t.
-1/4 cup grape juice
-Small, clear glass
-1 Tablespoon of baking soda
-1 Tablespoon of white vinegar
Grape Juice looks purple because its molecules are arranged in such a way that it absorbs all the colors of light except for purple. The purple reflects back to your eyes. This is how you see color. Adding other substances changes the molecular structure of grape juice, so its color changes.
You will need:
-1/4 cup grape juice
-Small, clear glass
-1 Tablespoon of baking soda
-1 Tablespoon of white vinegar
How to do it:
Color in the appropriate colors:
400 450 550 600 650 700
Frequency affects the pitch of sound
· To demonstrate to the students how frequency can affect the pitch of sound by using different levels of liquid in the containers.
· Soda cans
· glass Snapple® bottles
· water bottles
· pencils and/or wire hangers
· Have each student bring one of his or her choice: soda in a can, Snapple® drink, or a water bottle.
· Go through with the students the basics and the concept that pitch can be determined by how fast an object vibrates when resting position is altered.
· Have a fun demonstration in class to show the sounds and music different levels of frequency have. Ask for some volunteers.
· After going through this quick explanation and knowing the class understands the basic concept, have the students work with their lab partner and another pair of lab students.
· Each student from each group should drink a portion of their drink.
· Each group should have different levels of fluid remaining in their drinks as to demonstrate the difference in sound caused by the levels of fluid.
· Have the students use their pencils and/or wire hangers separately to listen for the pitch.
· Each member should notate the level in pitch, what type of drink was used and item with which drink was tapped. This should be done as a group so that they can see the difference the levels of fluid have.
· Go through the findings with students=> develop conclusions
· Which has a higher pitch, and which have a lower pitch.
· Try to get the students to come up with why the difference in sound pitch
· Explain to the students that the sound we hear is manufactured by the vibration of the can, bottle, or glass we tapped—correlate the levels of fluid in each item and how it affects the rate of vibration thus causing a difference in pitches.
· Students should come up with the knowledge that the cans with more liquid vibrate at a slower rate than the cans with less liquid
· The cans with more liquid produce low –pitched sounds while the cans with less liquid will produce a high-pitched sound.
How does frequency affects the pitch of sound?
Did you know that sound is energy?
Liquid levels (from less full to the fullest)
1 II III IV
Each individual student needs to demonstrate to their lab partners the sounds their level of liquid makes. While the students present to each other, the students that are not presenting should listen to the vibration being caused by the tapping.
Record level of pitch you notice by taping with pencil and a wire hanger for each liquid level:
After each student has tapped their cans/bottles/glass pay close observation to which level of liquid had the higher pitch and which have a lower pitch:____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________why_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
Instead of taping your bottles, try blowing into them.
Q: Notice anything different?
Arrange your cans from lowest amount of liquid to highest. Have a team member using either pencil or wire hanger begins tapping once to each from lowest to highest.
Q: why do the different amounts of water in the bottles create different notes when the bottles are tapped?
did you learn from this